General Q&A about the design and function of electronic systems, electric power systems and infrastructure, their theory, and tools specific to those fields. Read these guidelines before posting.

I have a question about stray current corrosion in reinforced conrete. I am working on a project in a parking garage with PV-panels on top of the roof. The ground is directly connected to reinforce...

Hi guys, I need to calculate the voltage that will center the magnetic field of a coil. The coil gonna be used in an induction heater thank you. Edit: I edited the paragraph because it was misu...

There are various different methods to keep common mode currents off the cables, one of them being discussed on the site here and with Olin's decoupling caps post on StackExchange. Slight digressio...

Hi guys so recently i was looking for a mosfet and a gate drivers and between a lot of their specification the rise/fall time and Turn-On/off Delay Time sometime it called propagation. My question...

Hi guys so i am planning to use LM318 operational amplifier to generate a pwm signal and i need to know how to calculate the rise/fall time thank you. LM318/LM218/LM118 datasheet Edit: -The slew...

Hi guys, Can anyone help me please replace the NE555 IC in this circuit by MIC1555. I need to modify also the Voltage to 18v thank you. MIC1555 datasheet NE555 datasheet Edit: The circuit a...

Whenever declaring a variable in C outside a function at file scope or when specifying it as static, it gets assigned a life time known as static storage duration. Meaning it will be accessible thr...

Im studying the equivalent model of a BJT common emitter amplifier at high frequencies.At university we tought that the BJT at high frequencies looks something like this: However when designing ...

The thermal stability coefficient is defined to be: $S = \frac{dI_{C}}{dI_{CBO}}$ where $I_{CBO}$ is the reverse current of the BJT when voltage isnt applied to the base of the BJT. In case of a ...

I have a non-invasive current sense transformer (SCT-013-030) which according to its datasheet it is voltage output type. I want to harvest energy and supply a wireless sensor that consumes 5-6 uA...

I have a design of a power line communication using the following IC. https://www.yamar.com/datasheet/DS-SIG60.pdf My design is the same as the example circuit in the datasheet of the chip. Th...

I have recently finished designing a buck-boost converter for a job that uses a split (+/-) input power supply. Load power is taken equally from both positive and negative input supplies and, the ...

[Disclaimer. This is not for an academic class. I'm self-studying.] I’m reading an introductory book on DSP for audio and computer music [Steiglitz 1996, ISBN 0-8053-1684-1 p. 287]. One of the ...

A taper pad is a resistive attenuator that maintains impedances on both ports and provides a specific amount of gain-loss ($A_{12}$): - I have derived formulas for each resistor (that I know to ...

Problem pH electrode buffer offset appears when solution is grounded. Detail I have a pH electrode in some conductive solution (~1000uS). The output (measurement electrode) is buffered by an el...

Design a suitable experiment and an AC circuit to verify Thevenin's theorem when the load is a single-phase induction motor with a capacitive start and two supplies feed the load. Ratings of load:...

I am analysing a pulse transformer which is required to transfer below communication protocol pulse from primary to the secondary side. The pulse duration is 32 μs and off time available to reset t...

I'm designing remote controller based on NRF24L01 and STM32. I want to use SMA antenna. My question is regarding power amplifier (PA). When is it necessary to use one? The range I'm aiming for is 2...

The plugs for microphones and for earphones are the same, however their functionality obviously is quite different. Now because of the same plugs it is easy to insert one of them in the wrong socke...

A full wave rectifier converts a sine wave to DC pulsed signal of double frequency. Is there a circuit which does the reverse process?

I am looking to improve my knowledge of embedded systems programming, specifically regarding microcontrollers and embedded Linux systems. A lot of the information that can be found regarding C/C++...

Before the circuit here are the digital blocks which have been already designed and exist as part of the division block 1 bit subtractor: 2 bit subtractor(in the digital block diagram of the di...

I am using two 18650 cells in series to power a RC car. Is the voltage goes below 6.2 V, the battery should be disconnected to prevent over discharging the battery. At the same time I want to imple...

I am generating files for manufacturing my design in Altium 22 and ordering through Eurocircuits. What I noticed during the ordering process is that the rotation of many components (and sometimes ...

Im designing a Hartley oscillator this time with a opamp providing the open-loop gain.I have tried drawing the small-signal analysis of my circuit to use KVL and KCL to find the conditions of opera...

I want to find the conditions of oscillation of the following Hartley oscillator.I have attached a load (ZL) to my Hartley oscillator I have written KCL for nodes A,B: For node A: $$\frac{V_{A...

I want to create a schematic symbol and reuse it for multiple ICs which have identical pinouts. For example, OpaMPS, or the venerable SN74LS00, SN74HC00, SN74HCT00. How can I do this in an Altium...

I have been trying to model this oscillator I was wondering if we can somehow predict the frequency of the oscillations.For small currents inside a diode from the Shockley diode equation $$ e^{x...

Instead of using a buck or a boost converter can we use for DC-DC conversion the circuit Im going to describe in the next lines? First we begin with a Hartley oscillator whose output is fed into ...

The small signal analysis of a BJT when the BJT is in amplification mode: is easy.However what happens when the BJT is in saturation mode? Can we replace the dependent current source with a r...

Im designing a high-pass filter which has a gain of -8dB at half of the roll-off frequency and I am stuck ,I dont know how to continue the design. In the bode plot of that filter we have 2 points:...

I have decided to try design a band-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 10kHz and bandwidth of 2 Hz. $$ \frac{1}{\sqrt{LC}} = 10001 \rightarrow LC = 1/100020001 sec^{2}$$ $$ \frac{R}{L} = 2...

I am trying to find the AC analysis of a BJT Hartley oscillator but I cannot continue. How do I find the voltage gain? When no feedback is there, we just find the output resistance and the current...

If we have the transfer function of a LC high pass filter: $H(s) = \frac{sL}{sL+\frac{1}{sC}}$ If we want to find the pole of that filter in the end we get: $s = \frac{j}{\sqrt{LC}}$ and for a ...

Suppose we have a RC low pass filter of 1st order. If we add multiple stages every time we add a RC stage identical to our original does the slope of the curve in the bode plot db/Hz becomes wild...

Signals with frequency above the cutoff frequency of a transmission line cannot be transmitted through the transmission line. But how can I calculate the cutoff frequency of a single phase transm...

I am designing a low-pass filter with cut-off frequency = 100Hz and after the cutoff frequency from -3dB to -10dB the average decrease in db/Hz = -0.1 db/Hz.I know how to design a low-pass filter ...

First I noticed that clock begins before chipselect gets pulled low on SPI. After eliminating potential sources I started to suspect the scope. I connected all 4 channels to function generator at d...

This question is related to my previous question. I want to drive a brushed DC motor using H-bridge. To power the motor two 18650 cells will be used in series. The issue is that I want to limit th...

My goal is to make an RC car, and I have a couple of questions regarding driving the brushed DC motor. Schematic for half of my H-bridge looks like this for now (it will be identical on the other s...

I have been observing these little cases hanging to the wires from a long time and almost everywhere but unable to find out what it is.I am not sure whether they are related to any electric...

My scenario is this: radio equipment controlling an overhead crane inside a steel mill. Specifically it is used for transporting melting pots. With the current, unfortunate installation, the antenn...

Suppose we have this graph: How can we find the operating point (Q)?In common emitter collector we just draw a line from the vertical axis (Ic) at the point (0,VCC/RC) to the horizontal axis a...

I was watching a video from EEVBLOG about bypass capacitors, and he presented a theory that randomly connecting different values of capacitors in parallel can create unexpected impedance spikes: ...

I was studying the Re model of a transistor: But the Re model for 2 different configurations (common emitter and common base )turns out to be the same! I don't know why I am really confused.How...

I am calculating the base current of transistor Q1. To simplify the circuit equations, I applied the Thévenin's theorem twice and converted V1 and R1, R2 into Vth and Rth as shown in the image. Vt...

I know that in transistors there is base, collector and emitter, and in FETs there is gate, drain and source, but what is the fourth grounded connection opposite the gate in this NMOS circuit?

I'm looking for input from anyone with insight in the PLC world. How do PLCs usually measure 4-20mA current loops? I would assume it's one of these two alternatives: Through an external "shunt"...

I want to design a simple battery charger using MCP73831/2. This chip has a 3-State state pin according to the table below: I have a 3.3V MCU and I want to connect this pin to a GPIO. The MCU is...

Signal characteristics are: 0 to 3.3V span 0 to 100Hz range( there will be noise superposed on top with unknown characteristics) Output resistance Rout=4700 ohm I want to sample that with a...