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Q&A

General Q&A about the design and function of electronic systems, electric power systems and infrastructure, their theory, and tools specific to those fields. Read these guidelines before posting.

281 posts ·
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What does it mean for signals to have impedance? To me, impedance is kinda like an "extended resistance" that also includes phase shift $$Z = R + jX$$It makes sense to me that components like cap...

3 answers  ·  posted 15d ago by Carl‭  ·  last activity 15h ago by jonathan_the_seagull‭

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Most modern CAD software for PCB design offers arc trace routing or a form of conversion between 45/90 degree angel trace routing and arc trace routing. Despite this, the overwhelming majority of c...

2 answers  ·  posted 19d ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 17d ago by DSI‭

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I am using the AD620 as instrumentation amplifier to amplify the body's ECG signal. An ECG is a differential signal (measured with two electrodes) and I want a differential gain of Gd=1000 . The ...

3 answers  ·  posted 20d ago by Carl‭  ·  last activity 15d ago by TonyStewart‭

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In this circuit below the relay circuit part is acting as an inrush current limiter, but I can't understand how it works since the current is flowing in both conditions where the relay is open or c...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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I have a MOT that is rated 220V-50Hz only and i need to know its maximum operating power i tried to google the reference number but unable to find anything about its power, so how to figure out the...

2 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Jasen‭

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1- What we call this opamp configuration? 2- What's the advantage and the disadvantage of this circuit? 3- And what's the purpose of the L2 in the feedback? I have changed gradually the value of...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by deleted user  ·  edited 2mo ago by deleted user

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As we know audio has high dynamic range. It means 120dB dynamic range of human ear causes to hear 1 million time samaller that highest undistorted accoustic wave. Then I think for high end audio we...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by mohammadsdtmnd‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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I've heared that arc welding is getting done with low voltage. As I know arcing requires high voltage. The how arc welding is done with about 50 volt. In my opinion I've thought we need kilovolts f...

2 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by mohammadsdtmnd‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by rdtsc‭

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I need a Sine Wave Oscillator circuit that can allow me to control its frequency with a microcontroller. Until now all the topologies that I have found if the frequency is changed, a change in the ...

2 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by deleted user  ·  edited 2mo ago by deleted user

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I'm supporting a piece of legacy hardware that routes the SPI bus through a set of headers to an expansion board. Since the expansion board doesn't actually use the SPI bus, we simply ignored the ...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by TimH‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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I have a small solar panel rated for 6V/DC, 150mA. I know that those specs are under ideal circumstances, and I would like to do some measurements in different weather conditions to see what I can ...

3 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by Keelan‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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I have HANTEK 6022BE, and I'm monitoring tree signal using it, FS (Frame sync clock) Pulse Transfer complete I'm using two channel of scope to monitor pair of these. The problem is when I'...

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I have a question about stray current corrosion in reinforced conrete. I am working on a project in a parking garage with PV-panels on top of the roof. The ground is directly connected to reinforce...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by Willem ‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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Hi guys, I need to calculate the voltage that will center the magnetic field of a coil. The coil gonna be used in an induction heater thank you. Edit: I edited the paragraph because it was misu...

3 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 4mo ago by jonathan_the_seagull‭

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There are various different methods to keep common mode currents off the cables, one of them being discussed on the site here and with Olin's decoupling caps post on StackExchange. Slight digressio...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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Hi guys so recently i was looking for a mosfet and a gate drivers and between a lot of their specification the rise/fall time and Turn-On/off Delay Time sometime it called propagation. My question...

2 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 4mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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I am planning to use the LM318 operational amplifier to generate a PWM signal and I need to know how to calculate the rise/fall time. LM318/LM218/LM118 datasheet -The slew rate is 70 V/µs maximum...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by deleted user  ·  edited 3mo ago by Peter Mortensen‭

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Hi guys, Can anyone help me please replace the NE555 IC in this circuit by MIC1555. I need to modify also the Voltage to 18v thank you. MIC1555 datasheet NE555 datasheet Edit: The circuit a...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Jasen‭

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Whenever declaring a variable in C outside a function at file scope or when specifying it as static, it gets assigned a life time known as static storage duration. Meaning it will be accessible thr...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by Lundin‭

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Im studying the equivalent model of a BJT common emitter amplifier at high frequencies.At university we tought that the BJT at high frequencies looks something like this: However when designing ...

0 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  closed 5mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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The thermal stability coefficient is defined to be: $S = \frac{dI_{C}}{dI_{CBO}}$ where $I_{CBO}$ is the reverse current of the BJT when voltage isnt applied to the base of the BJT. In case of a ...

1 answer  ·  posted 5mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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I have a non-invasive current sense transformer (SCT-013-030) which according to its datasheet it is voltage output type. I want to harvest energy and supply a wireless sensor that consumes 5-6 uA...

1 answer  ·  posted 5mo ago by DeadMouse‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by Andy aka‭

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I have a design of a power line communication using the following IC. https://www.yamar.com/datasheet/DS-SIG60.pdf My design is the same as the example circuit in the datasheet of the chip. Th...

2 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by DeadMouse‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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I have recently finished designing a buck-boost converter for a job that uses a split (+/-) input power supply. Load power is taken equally from both positive and negative input supplies and, the ...

1 answer  ·  posted 5mo ago by Andy aka‭  ·  edited 5mo ago by Andy aka‭

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[Disclaimer. This is not for an academic class. I'm self-studying.] I’m reading an introductory book on DSP for audio and computer music [Steiglitz 1996, ISBN 0-8053-1684-1 p. 287]. One of the ...

3 answers  ·  posted 6mo ago by Nick Alexeev‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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A taper pad is a resistive attenuator that maintains impedances on both ports and provides a specific amount of gain-loss ($A_{12}$): - I have derived formulas for each resistor (that I know to ...

2 answers  ·  posted 6mo ago by Andy aka‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by a concerned citizen‭

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Problem pH electrode buffer offset appears when solution is grounded. Detail I have a pH electrode in some conductive solution (~1000uS). The output (measurement electrode) is buffered by an el...

2 answers  ·  posted 6mo ago by rherma‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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Design a suitable experiment and an AC circuit to verify Thevenin's theorem when the load is a single-phase induction motor with a capacitive start and two supplies feed the load. Ratings of load:...

0 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by dkumar94600‭  ·  closed 7mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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I am analysing a pulse transformer which is required to transfer below communication protocol pulse from primary to the secondary side. The pulse duration is 32 μs and off time available to reset t...

2 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by kadamrohan16‭  ·  last activity 7mo ago by Andy aka‭

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I'm designing remote controller based on NRF24L01 and STM32. I want to use SMA antenna. My question is regarding power amplifier (PA). When is it necessary to use one? The range I'm aiming for is 2...

3 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by Stefan‭  ·  last activity 7mo ago by Andy aka‭

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The plugs for microphones and for earphones are the same, however their functionality obviously is quite different. Now because of the same plugs it is easy to insert one of them in the wrong socke...

2 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by celtschk‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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A full wave rectifier converts a sine wave to DC pulsed signal of double frequency. Is there a circuit which does the reverse process?

2 answers  ·  posted 8mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 8mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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I am looking to improve my knowledge of embedded systems programming, specifically regarding microcontrollers and embedded Linux systems. A lot of the information that can be found regarding C/C++...

1 answer  ·  posted 8mo ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 8mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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Before the circuit here are the digital blocks which have been already designed and exist as part of the division block 1 bit subtractor: 2 bit subtractor(in the digital block diagram of the di...

0 answers  ·  posted 8mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  closed 8mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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I am using two 18650 cells in series to power a RC car. Is the voltage goes below 6.2 V, the battery should be disconnected to prevent over discharging the battery. At the same time I want to imple...

2 answers  ·  posted 8mo ago by Stefan‭  ·  edited 8mo ago by Stefan‭

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I am generating files for manufacturing my design in Altium 22 and ordering through Eurocircuits. What I noticed during the ordering process is that the rotation of many components (and sometimes ...

1 answer  ·  posted 8mo ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 8mo ago by DSI‭

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Im designing a Hartley oscillator this time with a opamp providing the open-loop gain.I have tried drawing the small-signal analysis of my circuit to use KVL and KCL to find the conditions of opera...

1 answer  ·  posted 8mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 8mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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I want to find the conditions of oscillation of the following Hartley oscillator.I have attached a load (ZL) to my Hartley oscillator I have written KCL for nodes A,B: For node A: $$\frac{V_{A... 3 answers · posted 8mo ago by MissMulan‭ · last activity 8mo ago by TonyStewart‭ 71% +3 −0 I want to create a schematic symbol and reuse it for multiple ICs which have identical pinouts. For example, OpaMPS, or the venerable SN74LS00, SN74HC00, SN74HCT00. How can I do this in an Altium... 1 answer · posted 8mo ago by Nick Alexeev‭ · last activity 8mo ago by Mu3‭ 50% +0 −0 I have been trying to model this oscillator I was wondering if we can somehow predict the frequency of the oscillations.For small currents inside a diode from the Shockley diode equation$$ e^{x...

1 answer  ·  posted 8mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 8mo ago by a concerned citizen‭

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Instead of using a buck or a boost converter can we use for DC-DC conversion the circuit Im going to describe in the next lines? First we begin with a Hartley oscillator whose output is fed into ...

0 answers  ·  posted 8mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 8mo ago by MissMulan‭

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The small signal analysis of a BJT when the BJT is in amplification mode: is easy.However what happens when the BJT is in saturation mode? Can we replace the dependent current source with a r...

1 answer  ·  posted 8mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 8mo ago by MissMulan‭

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Im designing a high-pass filter which has a gain of -8dB at half of the roll-off frequency and I am stuck ,I dont know how to continue the design. In the bode plot of that filter we have 2 points:...

3 answers  ·  posted 8mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 7mo ago by LvW‭

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I have decided to try design a band-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 10kHz and bandwidth of 2 Hz. $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{LC}} = 10001 \rightarrow LC = 1/100020001 sec^{2}$$  \frac{R}{L} = 2...

2 answers  ·  posted 9mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 9mo ago by MissMulan‭

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I am trying to find the AC analysis of a BJT Hartley oscillator but I cannot continue. How do I find the voltage gain? When no feedback is there, we just find the output resistance and the current...

1 answer  ·  posted 9mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 9mo ago by MissMulan‭

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If we have the transfer function of a LC high pass filter: $H(s) = \frac{sL}{sL+\frac{1}{sC}}$ If we want to find the pole of that filter in the end we get: $s = \frac{j}{\sqrt{LC}}$ and for a ...

3 answers  ·  posted 9mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 9mo ago by Andy aka‭

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Suppose we have a RC low pass filter of 1st order. If we add multiple stages every time we add a RC stage identical to our original does the slope of the curve in the bode plot db/Hz becomes wild...

2 answers  ·  posted 9mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by a concerned citizen‭

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Signals with frequency above the cutoff frequency of a transmission line cannot be transmitted through the transmission line. But how can I calculate the cutoff frequency of a single phase transm...

0 answers  ·  posted 9mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  reopened 9mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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I am designing a low-pass filter with cut-off frequency = 100Hz and after the cutoff frequency from -3dB to -10dB the average decrease in db/Hz = -0.1 db/Hz.I know how to design a low-pass filter ...

2 answers  ·  posted 9mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 9mo ago by MissMulan‭

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First I noticed that clock begins before chipselect gets pulled low on SPI. After eliminating potential sources I started to suspect the scope. I connected all 4 channels to function generator at d...

3 answers  ·  posted 9mo ago by Elleanor Lopez‭  ·  last activity 8mo ago by Elleanor Lopez‭

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