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Q&A

General Q&A about the design and function of electronic systems, electric power systems and infrastructure, their theory, and tools specific to those fields. Read these guidelines before posting.

40%
+0 −1
How to calculate the voltage of a coil?

Hi guys, I need to calculate the voltage that will center the magnetic field of a coil. The coil gonna be used in an induction heater thank you. Edit: I edited the paragraph because it was misu...

1 answer  ·  posted 1d ago by Freewell‭  ·  edited 2h ago by Freewell‭

66%
+2 −0
Possible stray current corrosion in reinforced concrete

I have a question about stray current corrosion in reinforced conrete. I am working on a project in a parking garage with PV-panels on top of the roof. The ground is directly connected to reinforce...

1 answer  ·  posted 10h ago by Willem ‭  ·  edited 5h ago by Olin Lathrop‭

25%
+0 −4
BJT common emitter amplifier equivalent circuit (π hybrid model) [closed]

Im studying the equivalent model of a BJT common emitter amplifier at high frequencies.At university we tought that the BJT at high frequencies looks something like this: However when designing ...

0 answers  ·  posted 27d ago by MissMulan‭  ·  closed 27d ago by Olin Lathrop‭

77%
+5 −0
Buck-boost converter fed from split input supply

I have recently finished designing a buck-boost converter for a job that uses a split (+/-) input power supply. Load power is taken equally from both positive and negative input supplies and, the ...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by Andy aka‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Andy aka‭

66%
+2 −0
Ceramic filter vs ceramic resonator

I have a design of a power line communication using the following IC. https://www.yamar.com/datasheet/DS-SIG60.pdf My design is the same as the example circuit in the datasheet of the chip. Th...

2 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by DeadMouse‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by TonyStewart‭

71%
+3 −0
What are the key programming skills for an embedded systems engineer?

I am looking to improve my knowledge of embedded systems programming, specifically regarding microcontrollers and embedded Linux systems. A lot of the information that can be found regarding C/C++...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

75%
+4 −0
Low-pass filter after the output DAC in CD players

[Disclaimer. This is not for an academic class. I'm self-studying.] I’m reading an introductory book on DSP for audio and computer music [Steiglitz 1996, ISBN 0-8053-1684-1 p. 287]. One of the ...

3 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by Nick Alexeev‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
Altium. Reusing schematic symbols for pin-compatible parts.

I want to create a schematic symbol and reuse it for multiple ICs which have identical pinouts. For example, OpaMPS, or the venerable SN74LS00, SN74HC00, SN74HCT00. How can I do this in an Altium...

1 answer  ·  posted 5mo ago by Nick Alexeev‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by Mu3‭

60%
+1 −0
Cutoff frequency of single phase transmission line

Signals with frequency above the cutoff frequency of a transmission line cannot be transmitted through the transmission line. But how can I calculate the cutoff frequency of a single phase transm...

0 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  reopened 5mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
Battery protection circuit

I am using two 18650 cells in series to power a RC car. Is the voltage goes below 6.2 V, the battery should be disconnected to prevent over discharging the battery. At the same time I want to imple...

2 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by Stefan‭  ·  edited 4mo ago by Stefan‭

66%
+4 −1
Minimizing Common Mode Radiation - Separating Grounds

There are various different methods to keep common mode currents off the cables, one of them being discussed on the site here and with Olin's decoupling caps post on StackExchange. Slight digressio...

1 answer  ·  posted 10d ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 4d ago by TonyStewart‭

77%
+5 −0
Siglent1104 oscilloscope channels lagging

First I noticed that clock begins before chipselect gets pulled low on SPI. After eliminating potential sources I started to suspect the scope. I connected all 4 channels to function generator at d...

3 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by Elleanor Lopez‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by Elleanor Lopez‭

71%
+3 −0
Is it possible to calculate the rise/fall time of an operational amplifier ?

Hi guys so i am planning to use LM318 operational amplifier to generate a pwm signal and i need to know how to calculate the rise/fall time thank you. LM318/LM218/LM118 datasheet Edit: -The slew...

1 answer  ·  posted 15d ago by Freewell‭  ·  last activity 13d ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
Energy harvesting from non-invasive current sense transformer

I have a non-invasive current sense transformer (SCT-013-030) which according to its datasheet it is voltage output type. I want to harvest energy and supply a wireless sensor that consumes 5-6 uA...

1 answer  ·  posted 1mo ago by DeadMouse‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by Andy aka‭

75%
+4 −0
How to perform initialization of static storage variables in embedded systems?

Whenever declaring a variable in C outside a function at file scope or when specifying it as static, it gets assigned a life time known as static storage duration. Meaning it will be accessible thr...

1 answer  ·  posted 21d ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 21d ago by Lundin‭

20%
+0 −6
Need help design a digital circuit which divides two binary numbers [closed]

Before the circuit here are the digital blocks which have been already designed and exist as part of the division block 1 bit subtractor: 2 bit subtractor(in the digital block diagram of the di...

0 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  closed 4mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Circuit which create ac sine wave from dc pulsed signal

A full wave rectifier converts a sine wave to DC pulsed signal of double frequency. Is there a circuit which does the reverse process?

2 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by TonyStewart‭

28%
+0 −3
Thermal stability coefficient

The thermal stability coefficient is defined to be: $S = \frac{dI_{C}}{dI_{CBO}}$ where $I_{CBO}$ is the reverse current of the BJT when voltage isnt applied to the base of the BJT. In case of a ...

1 answer  ·  posted 1mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by TonyStewart‭

50%
+0 −0
Complex frequency of a pole

If we have the transfer function of a LC high pass filter: $H(s) = \frac{sL}{sL+\frac{1}{sC}}$ If we want to find the pole of that filter in the end we get: $s = \frac{j}{\sqrt{LC}}$ and for a ...

3 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by Andy aka‭

75%
+4 −0
What effect will extreme temperatures have on impedance in a wire?

My scenario is this: radio equipment controlling an overhead crane inside a steel mill. Specifically it is used for transporting melting pots. With the current, unfortunate installation, the antenn...

1 answer  ·  posted 6mo ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Level shifting of a 3 state logic pin

I want to design a simple battery charger using MCP73831/2. This chip has a 3-State state pin according to the table below: I have a 3.3V MCU and I want to connect this pin to a GPIO. The MCU is...

1 answer  ·  posted 8mo ago by dekker‭  ·  last activity 8mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
Case temperature of MOSFET

Homework problem A MOSFET has a power dissipation of $P_{d} = 10\text{W}$. The MOSFET is mounted on a heatsink. There is an isolation pad between the MOSFET case and the heatsink. We are given t...

1 answer  ·  posted 9mo ago by Carl‭  ·  edited 9mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

25%
+0 −4
DC-DC converter using Hartley oscillator and transformer [closed]

Instead of using a buck or a boost converter can we use for DC-DC conversion the circuit Im going to describe in the next lines? First we begin with a Hartley oscillator whose output is fed into ...

0 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 5mo ago by MissMulan‭

71%
+3 −0
Pick & place file generated by Altium does not match the actual component rotations/positions

I am generating files for manufacturing my design in Altium 22 and ordering through Eurocircuits. What I noticed during the ordering process is that the rotation of many components (and sometimes ...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by DSI‭

81%
+7 −0
Technique to reset pulse transformer core quickly

I am analysing a pulse transformer which is required to transfer below communication protocol pulse from primary to the secondary side. The pulse duration is 32 μs and off time available to reset t...

2 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by kadamrohan16‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Andy aka‭

75%
+4 −0
Can confusing the plugs for earphones and microphones do any damage?

The plugs for microphones and for earphones are the same, however their functionality obviously is quite different. Now because of the same plugs it is easy to insert one of them in the wrong socke...

2 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by celtschk‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by TonyStewart‭

50%
+0 −0
How do "O-ring circuit" differ from an "ORing circuit" or "OR-ing circuit", or are they synonyms? [closed]

I've seen a few different circuits (a) (b) (c) (d) described as "an O-ring circuit" or "an optimal O-ring circuit". What does the "O" and the "ring" refer to in such circuits? How do "O-ring circ...

0 answers  ·  posted 9mo ago by DavidCary‭  ·  closed 9mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

75%
+4 −0
Deriving resistor values for a taper pad attenuator

A taper pad is a resistive attenuator that maintains impedances on both ports and provides a specific amount of gain-loss ($A_{12}$): - I have derived formulas for each resistor (that I know to ...

2 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by Andy aka‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by a concerned citizen‭

50%
+0 −0
Modelling tunnel diode relaxation oscillator

I have been trying to model this oscillator I was wondering if we can somehow predict the frequency of the oscillations.For small currents inside a diode from the Shockley diode equation $$ e^{x...

1 answer  ·  posted 5mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by a concerned citizen‭

71%
+3 −0
Thévenins Theorem for Transistor Circuit

I am calculating the base current of transistor Q1. To simplify the circuit equations, I applied the Thévenin's theorem twice and converted V1 and R1, R2 into Vth and Rth as shown in the image. Vt...

2 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by kadamrohan16‭  ·  last activity 7mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

33%
+0 −2
Re model of transistor is the same in 2 different configuration

I was studying the Re model of a transistor: But the Re model for 2 different configurations (common emitter and common base )turns out to be the same! I don't know why I am really confused.How...

2 answers  ·  posted 6mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by LvW‭

57%
+2 −1
Choosing Y value in photoresistor graph

I have designed a graph of the current in a photoresistor related to the brightness of light which hits the photoresistor. Our professor told us that it is more correct to draw the Current/Brigh...

1 answer  ·  posted 10mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 10mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

33%
+0 −2
Small signal analysis of BJT in saturation region

The small signal analysis of a BJT when the BJT is in amplification mode: is easy.However what happens when the BJT is in saturation mode? Can we replace the dependent current source with a r...

1 answer  ·  posted 5mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 5mo ago by MissMulan‭

42%
+1 −2
Need help to replace 555

Hi guys, Can anyone help me please replace the NE555 IC in this circuit by MIC1555. I need to modify also the Voltage to 18v thank you. MIC1555 datasheet NE555 datasheet Edit: The circuit a...

0 answers  ·  posted 15d ago by Freewell‭  ·  edited 12d ago by Freewell‭

555
62%
+3 −1
Power amplifier for remote controller

I'm designing remote controller based on NRF24L01 and STM32. I want to use SMA antenna. My question is regarding power amplifier (PA). When is it necessary to use one? The range I'm aiming for is 2...

3 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by Stefan‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Andy aka‭

33%
+0 −2
How to design a low-pass filter when certain conditions must be met

I am designing a low-pass filter with cut-off frequency = 100Hz and after the cutoff frequency from -3dB to -10dB the average decrease in db/Hz = -0.1 db/Hz.I know how to design a low-pass filter ...

2 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 5mo ago by MissMulan‭

66%
+4 −1
How to calculate the RC filter of a TXCO for a RFIC reference?

I have a 30MHz TCXO circuit (TXCO datasheet) like this serving as local oscillator to a RFIC: The RFIC manufacturer recommends to "add filtering caps" for high RF output cases. That is &gt;20d...

1 answer  ·  posted 10mo ago by Lundin‭  ·  edited 10mo ago by Lundin‭

50%
+0 −0
Finding voltage gain of Hartley oscillator

I am trying to find the AC analysis of a BJT Hartley oscillator but I cannot continue. How do I find the voltage gain? When no feedback is there, we just find the output resistance and the current...

1 answer  ·  posted 5mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 5mo ago by MissMulan‭

28%
+0 −3
Phase shift between phase and line quantities [closed]

In a 3 phase Star source-Star load circuit the phase voltage has different phase than line voltage and in a 3 phase Delta source-Delta load circuit the phase current has different phase than the li...

0 answers  ·  posted 12mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  closed 12mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
Oscilloscope potentially ESD striked

I have a Rigol DS1104 oscilloscope. Last week I stood up quickly from my table and saw a spike on the scope. Right now all the channels have a DC offset when probe is connected to ground or unconne...

2 answers  ·  posted 9mo ago by ScopeMan‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by Lundin‭

50%
+3 −3
What reactance actually is?

I saw that equation of reactance is written like this $$I=\frac{V}{|R+X_L j|}$$ $$I=\frac{V}{|R-X_c j|}$$ When there's capacitor and inductor in a single circuit then it is written like : $$I=\...

4 answers  ·  posted 10mo ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 7mo ago by Andy aka‭

75%
+4 −0
Via on pad: acceptable or not?

I am designing a PCB with somewhat limited space. To save space, I am placing some vias on component pads. However, I am not sure if this is a good practice in PCB design. As far as I understand, t...

1 answer  ·  posted 12mo ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 12mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

25%
+0 −4
Designing a circuit to verify thevenin theorem with induction motor as load [closed]

Design a suitable experiment and an AC circuit to verify Thevenin's theorem when the load is a single-phase induction motor with a capacitive start and two supplies feed the load. Ratings of load:...

0 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by dkumar94600‭  ·  closed 3mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+4 −1
Duty cycle of buck-boost converter

I have the following problem: - Using Wikipedia I find that during CCM we have the relation: - $$\frac{V_{out}}{V_{in}} = -\frac{D}{1-D} $$ Solving for $D$ and inserting values gives me $...

2 answers  ·  posted 9mo ago by Carl‭  ·  last activity 9mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+4 −1
Mysterious little cases hanging on street wirings

I have been observing these little cases hanging to the wires from a long time and almost everywhere but unable to find out what it is.I am not sure whether they are related to any electric...

3 answers  ·  posted 6mo ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by Jasen‭

84%
+9 −0
208VAC triple-phase to single-phase conversion

The question: Is there a way to convert from triple-phase 208VAC to single-phase 208VAC? Background: Hi everyone, I am stuck on a project I'm working on. I'd like to convert 208VAC (three phase,...

2 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by cosined‭  ·  last activity 12mo ago by Andy aka‭

50%
+1 −1
MOSFET not turning completely off

Hello everyone, I have a simple circuit in which I control some LEDs via an MCU and DMG2302UK ( N-channel MOSFET ) The EN pin is connected to an MCU gpio pin that works at 3.3V. The circuit wo...

1 answer  ·  posted 1y ago by AhmedMobarez‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

44%
+2 −3
Parallel RLC circuit

How to find the equation of voltage of the top common node of R1,L1 and C1 after the switch is moved?

1 answer  ·  posted 1y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by MissMulan‭

75%
+4 −0
Why are there more N type than P type MOSFETs?

I was looking at different transistors, especially MOSFETS and I saw that N type MOSFETs seem to be way more popular to be used in circuit design. Is there a reason for that, or am I mistaken?

2 answers  ·  posted 10mo ago by crusadEEr‭  ·  last activity 10mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

80%
+6 −0
Standardized schematic/layout file formats for PCB CAD tools?

As we know there exists numerous different kinds of PCB CAD software. The big ones seem to be Eagle, KiCAD, Altium, OrCAD, Solidworks, DesignSpark and probably a few more. When it comes to mechani...

1 answer  ·  posted 11mo ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 11mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭