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Q&A

General Q&A about the design and function of electronic systems, electric power systems and infrastructure, their theory, and tools specific to those fields. Read these guidelines before posting.

Filters (None)
62%
+3 −1
Microwave oven interfering with WiFi on the 2.4GHz band

As I understand it, microwave oven magnetrons operate at 2.45GHz, which is an unlicensed band in most of the world. When 2.4GHz technologies such as WiFi (802.11), Bluetooth and Zigbee were launche...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by TonyStewart‭

30%
+1 −5
Is this AD8307 fake?

I am trying to test a AD8307. Here are my connections: (pins not shown are left unconnected, and also pin 8). I get a quiescent output voltage at pin 4 of about 850 mV with respect to ground, w...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  edited 3y ago by coquelicot‭

71%
+3 −0
How could you model a 10M/100M Ethernet PHY architecture?

Application notes for microcontrollers or other ICs that have an internal 10M/100M ethernet PHY module differ in their requirements for the external interface components. It seems that the PHY des...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by DavidE‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

77%
+5 −0
Can you call an IC pin 'N.C' if it has hidden functionality?

The particular IC I ran into this issue with was DS3231 RTC. The pin configuration shows: However, the datasheet specifies To my knowledge, 'N.C' appears on ICs when it is decided to use a cer...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

IC
55%
+3 −2
Who is familiar with PocketLink semiconductor and or Tesla Model 3 electronics

I got my hands on a Tesla Model 3 aftermarket module (Display/Cluster) The IC's are labled with the brand 'PocketLink' Id like to know more about what these parts are. Chip1: PocketLink B2 003...

0 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Steven83‭  ·  edited 3y ago by Lundin‭

66%
+2 −0
Is there a tool or trick for bending TO220 leads

Small-shop question here. Is there a convenient tool for making the bend shown below, other than a pair of pliers that happens to be just the right size, and is it worth it for qty low 100's? ...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Pete W‭  ·  edited 3y ago by Lundin‭

66%
+2 −0
Filter RF Harmonics With Additional PI Network

I have a 900MHz radio with a reference design matching network. The radio feeds to a PCB antenna (PCB antenna hasn't been verified with a VNA, and may not be a great match; this is a project to n...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by leroy105‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by leroy105‭

RF
66%
+2 −0
Is there a particular type of lead-free solder that does not degrade soldering tips?

I have had my soldering iron tips degrading at ridiculous rates. Granted, they are not very expensive, but sometimes it takes less than 8 hours of soldering for them to degrade to the point where t...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Pete W‭

60%
+1 −0
Why is it is always power consumption or power delivered more in usage?

In circuit analysis why always the power has upper hand over energy? Even if we consider a simple battery circuit with a bunch of resisitors we always use the terms power delivered,absorbed,consump...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Andy aka‭

60%
+1 −0
555 timer, PAM with digital signal

I'd like to use a 555 timer as carrier wave generator at ~ 50 kHz and modulate the amplitude with an external digital signal at ~ 1 kHz. The pulse width remains constant at 10us (50% duty cycle)....

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by mrwavelets‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by coquelicot‭

50%
+2 −2
Can there be a global EMP disaster, whether totally natural or partially natural and partly artificial?

I have no record in electrical engineering; this is a total outsider question which might be grasped absurd. Wikipedia defines EMP as: An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a tr...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by deleted user  ·  edited 3y ago by Lundin‭

71%
+3 −0
Isolated Digital Input - Overvoltage protection

I am trying to build an active-low digital isolated switch capable of withstanding 32VDC voltage without creating any damage to the system. This is the snapshot of the circuit not fulfilling the r...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
Measuring Input/Output Impedance with a VNA

On paper you can measure the input impedance of an amplifier circuit by attaching a voltage source to the input, shorting the output, and calculating the resulting impedance from the voltage and cu...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by jm567‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by coquelicot‭

60%
+1 −0
Is it possible to design an n-bit full adder using SystemVerilog?

I am trying to design a full adder in SystemVerilog. I searched on Wikipedia and I found this https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Microprocessor_Design/Add_and_Subtract_Blocks module full_...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by System‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by System‭

50%
+0 −0
My grid dip: how does this electron tube technology work?

Here is a video of the AN/PRM10, and here is a schematic (I believe the image can be zoomed): As most commercial grid dip meters produced in the past, this one possesses several functions in ad...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by coquelicot‭

66%
+2 −0
BLDC motor - initial rotor position

Sensorless BLDC motor controller are becoming more and more popular, especially with rising of the drone industry. Being able to detect where the rotor is at 0rpm or no load seems intuitive if we ...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by KalleMP‭

60%
+1 −0
Why are two identical filters required for each signal, if the signals can be multiplexed into a single filter?

In the block diagram of this pulse oximeter design guide , in page 6, I see that the system utilizes two analog filters, one for filtering the PPG signal generated while the RED light/wavelength is...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Georgian‭  ·  edited 3y ago by Georgian‭

50%
+2 −2
Why does AC frequency affect my microwave's RPM?

I used to live in the United States, and my microwave ovens' turntables turned at six rotations per minute (RPM). I now live in Israel, and my microwave oven's turntable rotates at five RPM. Annoye...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by msh210‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

44%
+2 −3
Why isn't voltage of electric chair higher?

I recall vividly a story told by my grandfather who worked with high voltage power lines. A worker drove heavy machinery into 700kV line and then jumped out of the truck, instantly combusting upon ...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by manassehkatz‭

60%
+1 −0
Why is the Linear Time-Invariant System (LTI) dominant in Signal processing?

I just want to know why the Linear time-invariant(LTI) systems are a rich class in Signal Processing. Ofcourse there are different systems but still LTI is stressed a lot in academia. Is there any ...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
recommendation for chip programming connection (pogo?)

Background: I have several microcontroller based projects with custom PCB that have been in very-low-volume production, but the quantities are starting to go up. (batch sizes now ~100 and threateni...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Pete W‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
PCT2075 temperature sensor accuracy

I read datasheet for PCT2075 temperature sensor and there are some contradicting data about accuracy for me. Page 21: accuracy ±1°C (Tamb = -25°C to +100°C) accuracy ±2°C (Tamb = -55°C to +125°C...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Chupacabras‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Confused about the amplitude and shape of output voltage pulse

In the circuit below, I am applying a $3.3Vpp$, $63kHz$, 50% Duty Cycle, PWM input signal at the gate of the mosfet and I am expecting to see a similar waveform with different amplitude at the LED...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Georgian‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by coquelicot‭

66%
+2 −0
CAN Bus - Internal Oscillator

Every time I needed CAN, I had just put external crystal and didn't think about it after that. It worked fine. I am wondering however whether the precisions of MCU internal oscillator is sufficien...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by 2kind‭  ·  edited 3y ago by Lundin‭

66%
+2 −0
Driving ADC with opamp with large rails

In the image below is an opamp buffer with +/- 15v rails connected to a 3.3v ADC. The input to the opamp is limited to 0-3v. There is no protection circuitry for the ADC. Is the risk of the opam...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by z3333‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by coquelicot‭

66%
+2 −0
Transformer - Vsec or Current rating parameter

I am looking at the datasheet of the 7508170315(link) transformer and something seems strange to me. If I connect this to a 12V supply and expose it to 10us pulse: 12V*10us/475uH = 252mA which ...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

33%
+0 −2
Is it possible for one transistor to switch between two loads?

The output collector-emitter part of a transistor can be thought of as a 2-terminal SPST switch controlled by the input base-emitter voltage or base current. So this transistor switch can control o...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Circuit fantasist‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

71%
+3 −0
Moving average that uses less memory?

My control system gets a signal representing the plant output, but that signal has a lot of noise on it. The control system goes nuts trying to react to the noise. I need to filter out the noise ...

4 answers  ·  posted 4y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Pete W‭

60%
+1 −0
Flyback Converter - Output Ripple

I am eager to create a flyback converter for driving the high side MOSFET. Here is a snapshot of my work so far: 555 timer starts with generating ~100kHz 12V signal on Q1. Q2 is monitoring the v...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

57%
+2 −1
How can I debug, (and eventually fix) this Roomba PCB? [closed]

I've got a broken roomba, I've tried new batteries and a working charger. The charger is supposed to output 20V-24W when the roomba is plugged in. the picture just shows how I'm measuring the pow...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by dustytrash‭  ·  edited 3y ago by dustytrash‭

50%
+1 −1
High Power Switch - High Side vs. Low Side Switching

Imagine a battery pack with <=60VDC of maximum voltage and a load of up to 10kW of power(the PMSM inverter with the input capacitance of up to 1mF). The load is not always known - could be 100uF...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Bit-rate vs Baud-rate

I am really confused how the terms bit-rate are baud-rate are used in electronics. I never bothered thinking about baud-rate being different than bit-rate before. But recently, one of my teachers t...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Giga-Byte‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Canina‭

75%
+4 −0
How to estimate time of completion while developing an electronic product?

I don't know whether this question is on-topic or not but answering this helps a lot of future electronics entrepreneurs like me understand how the product design and development time estimation ta...

5 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by TonyStewart‭

71%
+3 −0
Using FET based followers and design rules

Usually, voltage followers are built with bipolar transistors (or with opamps if better precision is needed). In this case, the simple rule says that the transistor emitter "follows" the input vol...

5 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by TonyStewart‭

71%
+3 −0
Why is the ACK (acknowledge bit) in the CAN bus frames dominant? What could have been the rationale behind that design decision?

[I’m asking this question out of curiosity. I understand that this aspect of the CAN bus specification is what it is, and can not change.] The ACK bit in any CAN data frame is dominant. Each rece...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Nick Alexeev‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
De-bouncing input signals?

I've heard that input signals to digital circuits should be "de-bounced", at least sometimes. What is de-bouncing? Why is it needed? When is it needed? What is bouncing around in the first place?

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

61%
+6 −3
weak WiFi when microwave is running [closed]

Nowadays, that I videoconference over WiFi a lot, I've started to notice some trends in WiFi quality. And it seems my connectivity decreases when my microwave oven is on (I work in the same room a...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by msh210‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by .                                                .‭

42%
+1 −2
Usage of modern active building blocks [closed]

In the past, a large number of new active building blocks have been proposed and published by many researchers all over the world. In most cases, these new building blocks were used for realizing n...

0 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by LvW‭  ·  edited 3y ago by LvW‭

60%
+1 −0
More accuracy from multiple resistors in series or parallel?

What happens to the overall accuracy of a resistor if I implement it as multiple resistors in series or parallel? For example, can I get better than 2 kΩ 5% by putting two 1 kΩ 5% resistors in ser...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by coquelicot‭

60%
+1 −0
High pass filter design

Despite there are many filter calculators available on the web, I still have difficulties to translate what I need into calculator design parameters. For my application, I need ideally a high pass ...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by a concerned citizen‭

85%
+10 −0
How to calculate pullup resistor value for pushbutton?

What value pullup resistor should I use for a pushbutton connected to a microcontroller input? I've seen values from 1 kΩ to over 100 kΩ. Some references just say to use 10 kΩ because it's a "goo...

2 answers  ·  posted 4y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

66%
+2 −0
Emitter Bypass Capacitor in a CE Amplifier

How exactly is the emitter capacitor C3 helping to increase the voltage gain in the common emitter amplifier below? Is it because for AC signals the emitter looks like a short to ground and that es...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by jm567‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

50%
+0 −0
General Questions Regarding FPGAs [closed]

I'm curious about FPGAs and would eventually like to get into them sometime during the future, so I'd like to ask three broad questions to help orient myself: In what applications are FPGAs the m...

0 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by jm567‭  ·  closed 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

50%
+2 −2
Filtering the high frequency noise in switching PSU

It is well known that it is difficult to filter the noise generated by switching power supplies, and this difficulty increases as the PSU is supposed to deliver large currents. For example, in a us...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  edited 3y ago by coquelicot‭

60%
+1 −0
Control circuit for Power Converters

There is always a mixed response when comparing power management ICs (PMIC) and microcontrollers in the application of power converters (I mean as pwm controllers). What are the advantages and dis...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

81%
+7 −0
High Speed Design - Which grounding strategy to choose?

Although I have done multiple PCB designs which passed FCC and CE equivalents using the MCU's/Multiple MCU's, I have a doubt about how to approach the high speed design using FPGA SoC - main thing ...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Filter Impedance Consideration

In a lot of textbooks, filters seem to be designed around a matching source and load impedance. However, If I have a filter stage between an antenna and an LNA, wouldn't I want the load impedance(i...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by jm567‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

50%
+1 −1
I have to choose: Arduino or Raspberry pi.

Moderator Note If this site were mature, this question would be closed because it solicits opinions, or is too specific about particular models. In the interest of site activity, answers are being...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

60%
+1 −0
Mixers and Audio Extraction in a DCR Architecture

I want to make a simple 7MHz direct conversion SSB receiver in order to materialize some RF concepts I have been teaching myself lately. My question revolves around the mixer portion. I'm failing t...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by jm567‭  ·  edited 3y ago by jm567‭

60%
+1 −0
How to define Vsat for MOSFET as a switch?

I was looking at this design: It uses MC34063 as switching controller. I wanted to adapt this circuit, and I was busy trying to pick R1 value. The datasheet has following formulas: The issue I hav...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Andy aka‭