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Q&A

General Q&A about the design and function of electronic systems, electric power systems and infrastructure, their theory, and tools specific to those fields. Read these guidelines before posting.

66%
+2 −0
Transformer - Vsec or Current rating parameter

I am looking at the datasheet of the 7508170315(link) transformer and something seems strange to me. If I connect this to a 12V supply and expose it to 10us pulse: 12V*10us/475uH = 252mA which ...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

33%
+0 −2
Is it possible for one transistor to switch between two loads?

The output collector-emitter part of a transistor can be thought of as a 2-terminal SPST switch controlled by the input base-emitter voltage or base current. So this transistor switch can control o...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Circuit fantasist‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

71%
+3 −0
Moving average that uses less memory?

My control system gets a signal representing the plant output, but that signal has a lot of noise on it. The control system goes nuts trying to react to the noise. I need to filter out the noise ...

4 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Pete W‭

62%
+3 −1
How to plot the I-V curve of a tunnel diode?

I am trying to understand tunnel diodes by experimenting with them. Research tells me they can have negative resistance, and can be used to build a high frequency oscillator. Tunnel diodes are su...

4 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by tlfong01‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

60%
+1 −0
Flyback Converter - Output Ripple

I am eager to create a flyback converter for driving the high side MOSFET. Here is a snapshot of my work so far: 555 timer starts with generating ~100kHz 12V signal on Q1. Q2 is monitoring the v...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

60%
+1 −0
digital multimeter display count range

The display counts range is one of the digital multimeter characteristics, we know that a DMM is based on an analog/digital converter. And we know too that each ADC has a resolution nBits. A 16 bit...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Pacifist‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

57%
+2 −1
How can I debug, (and eventually fix) this Roomba PCB? [closed]

I've got a broken roomba, I've tried new batteries and a working charger. The charger is supposed to output 20V-24W when the roomba is plugged in. the picture just shows how I'm measuring the pow...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by dustytrash‭  ·  edited 2y ago by dustytrash‭

66%
+2 −0
Cleaning flux out of USB connectors after soldering

When soldering Micro-USB or USB-C connectors by hand, flux is applied generously. This sometimes results in flux getting inside the connector housing, making it sticky and creating high physical re...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Lundin‭

50%
+1 −1
High Power Switch - High Side vs. Low Side Switching

Imagine a battery pack with &lt;=60VDC of maximum voltage and a load of up to 10kW of power(the PMSM inverter with the input capacitance of up to 1mF). The load is not always known - could be 100uF...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

60%
+1 −0
Bit-rate vs Baud-rate

I am really confused how the terms bit-rate are baud-rate are used in electronics. I never bothered thinking about baud-rate being different than bit-rate before. But recently, one of my teachers t...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Giga-Byte‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Canina‭

50%
+1 −1
What is the role of the differential amplifier in a delta sigma converter?

A differential amplifier amplifies the difference between the two input voltages but suppresses any voltage common to the two inputs. Based on this scheme the differential amplifier is substrac...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Pacifist‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

60%
+1 −0
What is the difference between differential amplifier and differentiator?

Since am interested in how a delta sigma modulator works, I need to know what is the difference between differential amplifier and differentiator if there is a difference of course.

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Pacifist‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

66%
+2 −0
How to estimate time of completion while developing an electronic product?

I don't know whether this question is on-topic or not but answering this helps a lot of future electronics entrepreneurs like me understand how the product design and development time estimation ta...

5 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by TonyStewart‭

66%
+2 −0
Driving LED with NPN transistor from I/O pin

Trying to understand a circuit for driving a LED found on a board I purchased. Below is a circuit driven by an I/O pin (HS2) of a small 3.3V processor. The HS2 pin is driven by the I/O with specs...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by eric‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by coquelicot‭

71%
+3 −0
Using FET based followers and design rules

Usually, voltage followers are built with bipolar transistors (or with opamps if better precision is needed). In this case, the simple rule says that the transistor emitter "follows" the input vol...

5 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by TonyStewart‭

66%
+2 −0
Understanding the s11 and s21 coefficients of a microstrip line with resistor to ground

I thought I understood the theory of scattering parameters, smith charts etc. until I tried a practical example. The following stupid example is supposed to be a microstrip line shunted by two 100...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by coquelicot‭

57%
+2 −1
ESD Protection - Differential Amplifier

More about the circuit The circuit is sensing (low side sensing for many reasons) current used to power up the lights with 28V(part of the schematics not shown here -&gt; relay with LC filter ...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Nick Alexeev‭

71%
+3 −0
Why is the ACK (acknowledge bit) in the CAN bus frames dominant? What could have been the rationale behind that design decision?

[I’m asking this question out of curiosity. I understand that this aspect of the CAN bus specification is what it is, and can not change.] The ACK bit in any CAN data frame is dominant. Each rece...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Nick Alexeev‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
De-bouncing input signals?

I've heard that input signals to digital circuits should be "de-bounced", at least sometimes. What is de-bouncing? Why is it needed? When is it needed? What is bouncing around in the first place?

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

61%
+6 −3
weak WiFi when microwave is running [closed]

Nowadays, that I videoconference over WiFi a lot, I've started to notice some trends in WiFi quality. And it seems my connectivity decreases when my microwave oven is on (I work in the same room a...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by msh210‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by .                                                .‭

71%
+3 −0
Why there is a body diode in mosfets?

In theory (I mean in my engineering curriculum) I never found a diode in a mosfet symbol but in datasheets there is a diode called as body diode in both pmos and nmos.Please explain its significan...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Nick Alexeev‭

42%
+1 −2
Usage of modern active building blocks [closed]

In the past, a large number of new active building blocks have been proposed and published by many researchers all over the world. In most cases, these new building blocks were used for realizing n...

0 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by LvW‭  ·  edited 2y ago by LvW‭

71%
+3 −0
Why Ib=const. for BJT output characteristics Ic=f(Vce)

As I have learned, it is allowed to ask a question here to which I already know one of several possible answers. Introduction: In some books and other technical papers (also from universities) it i...

4 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by LvW‭  ·  edited 2y ago by LvW‭

60%
+1 −0
More accuracy from multiple resistors in series or parallel?

What happens to the overall accuracy of a resistor if I implement it as multiple resistors in series or parallel? For example, can I get better than 2 kΩ 5% by putting two 1 kΩ 5% resistors in ser...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by coquelicot‭

60%
+1 −0
High pass filter design

Despite there are many filter calculators available on the web, I still have difficulties to translate what I need into calculator design parameters. For my application, I need ideally a high pass ...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by a concerned citizen‭

66%
+2 −0
Purpose of emitter resistor in a common collector amplifier

I see a lot of common collector amplifiers with the output taken across an emitter resistor. What is the purpose of doing it this way instead of connecting your load directly to the emitter? I shou...

4 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by jm567‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by LvW‭

85%
+10 −0
How to calculate pullup resistor value for pushbutton?

What value pullup resistor should I use for a pushbutton connected to a microcontroller input? I've seen values from 1 kΩ to over 100 kΩ. Some references just say to use 10 kΩ because it's a "goo...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

66%
+2 −0
Emitter Bypass Capacitor in a CE Amplifier

How exactly is the emitter capacitor C3 helping to increase the voltage gain in the common emitter amplifier below? Is it because for AC signals the emitter looks like a short to ground and that es...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by jm567‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

50%
+0 −0
General Questions Regarding FPGAs [closed]

I'm curious about FPGAs and would eventually like to get into them sometime during the future, so I'd like to ask three broad questions to help orient myself: In what applications are FPGAs the m...

0 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by jm567‭  ·  closed 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

50%
+2 −2
Filtering the high frequency noise in switching PSU

It is well known that it is difficult to filter the noise generated by switching power supplies, and this difficulty increases as the PSU is supposed to deliver large currents. For example, in a us...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  edited 2y ago by coquelicot‭

60%
+1 −0
Control circuit for Power Converters

There is always a mixed response when comparing power management ICs (PMIC) and microcontrollers in the application of power converters (I mean as pwm controllers). What are the advantages and dis...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

81%
+7 −0
High Speed Design - Which grounding strategy to choose?

Although I have done multiple PCB designs which passed FCC and CE equivalents using the MCU's/Multiple MCU's, I have a doubt about how to approach the high speed design using FPGA SoC - main thing ...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Filter Impedance Consideration

In a lot of textbooks, filters seem to be designed around a matching source and load impedance. However, If I have a filter stage between an antenna and an LNA, wouldn't I want the load impedance(i...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by jm567‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

50%
+1 −1
I have to choose: Arduino or Raspberry pi.

Moderator Note If this site were mature, this question would be closed because it solicits opinions, or is too specific about particular models. In the interest of site activity, answers are being...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

60%
+1 −0
Mixers and Audio Extraction in a DCR Architecture

I want to make a simple 7MHz direct conversion SSB receiver in order to materialize some RF concepts I have been teaching myself lately. My question revolves around the mixer portion. I'm failing t...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by jm567‭  ·  edited 2y ago by jm567‭

66%
+2 −0
Design rules for oamp bootstrap

Here is the bootstrapping technique for oamps, as exposed in the Art of Electronics:. This technique is supposed to increase considerably the input impedance of the oamp for an AC input source (usu...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by coquelicot‭

60%
+1 −0
How to define Vsat for MOSFET as a switch?

I was looking at this design: It uses MC34063 as switching controller. I wanted to adapt this circuit, and I was busy trying to pick R1 value. The datasheet has following formulas: The issue I hav...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Andy aka‭

60%
+1 −0
Design considerations when using a wireless charging battery pack

I want to include a wirelessly charged battery pack into my design. However, I am worried that the wireless charging could damage my main logic board. What considerations, apart from not having loo...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

60%
+1 −0
What is the significance of push-pull and open drain controls in circuits?

Why do we use open collector / open drain configurations in circuits? From one source I learned that LED controls are of two types- (1) Push pull,(2) Open Drain.Why do we use and what is actually h...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by DrBearEE‭

66%
+2 −0
How do I design a boost converter? What are the basics I should know?

I need to design a simple boost converter like this: - I want to control duty cycle from another circuit such as an MCU but, I'm unsure how to proceed. My requirements are: - Input voltage 12 vol...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Andy aka‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Andy aka‭

60%
+1 −0
Antenna Feed Line Question

Hello, I am designing 1/4 WL strip antenna for a bluetooth chip and i had some questions regarding the 50 Ohm feed line. Right now I am using a Nordic-recommended 1.5mm trace width and a 23mm + 4mm...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by jm567‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

50%
+0 −0
MAX809's Irregularity Depending on Load

I have a MAX809 with RESET pin connected to the gate of IRLML6344. I will rephrase my question. At 5 V, RESET is also 5 V and the LED lights up. But if I add the fan, RESET drops to 0 V and draws 1...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by timelyfiasco‭  ·  edited 2y ago by timelyfiasco‭

IC
60%
+1 −0
Doubt regarding loading.

Consider this statement "A voltage source is heavily loaded",what does this mean? I mean that whether the load resistance is high or there is huge drop in source voltage at load due to internal res...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

60%
+1 −0
Pi-Filter for EMC

What would be the main considerations to use Pi-filters for EMC?

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by zeke‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Lundin‭

50%
+0 −0
LC Filter and Capacitor Considerations [closed]

I've been experimenting with LC filter circuits on the output of a SMPS I recently bought because it was too high for the circuit I'm making. After hooking up many different combinations, I found t...

0 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by jm567‭  ·  closed 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

50%
+0 −0
Current Flow in the OFF Time of a Switching Power Supply

I am having a difficult time picturing the flow of current and the role of the capacitor during the OFF time of a buck converter. Here is my understanding so far. During the ON time the magnetic fi...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by jm567‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
LED with a parallel resistor

It is common to have a series resistor to limit the current trough an LED. I saw a circuit using the LED driver: stp16cpc26. but instead having the series resistor, they are in parallel. This LED d...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by zeke‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
How come the registers in a micro are application specific?

This is an energy meter reference design guide I found in microchip's website. In a microcontroller how come the registers are specific to the project?Please explain.

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by manassehkatz‭

66%
+2 −0
Why RC toys still operate in 27Mhz band?

Recently I had opened an remote control (RC) toy to see its circuit and found that it operates on 27 Mhz. Not just that toy even many toys operate in that 27 and 49 Mhz band. These days we find eve...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Bypass Caps and High Frequency Current Return Path

I was watching this video by w2aew on the function of ceramic bypass capacitors, and at 6:00 he states that high-frequency currents take the path of least-impedance and make their way to the power ...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by jm567‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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