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Q&A

General Q&A about the design and function of electronic systems, electric power systems and infrastructure, their theory, and tools specific to those fields. Read these guidelines before posting.

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how to figure out the max power of a transformer?

I have a MOT that is rated 220V-50Hz only and i need to know its maximum operating power i tried to google the reference number but unable to find anything about its power, so how to figure out the...

2 answers  ·  posted 14d ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 7d ago by Jasen‭

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+1 −0
How to check realistic specs of small solar panel?

I have a small solar panel rated for 6V/DC, 150mA. I know that those specs are under ideal circumstances, and I would like to do some measurements in different weather conditions to see what I can ...

3 answers  ·  posted 1mo ago by Keelan‭  ·  last activity 7d ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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How Relay inrush current limiter works?

In this circuit below the relay circuit part is acting as an inrush current limiter, but I can't understand how it works since the current is flowing in both conditions where the relay is open or c...

1 answer  ·  posted 9d ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 8d ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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What we call this opamp configuration? [SOLVED]

1- What we call this opamp configuration? 2- What's the advantage and the disadvantage of this circuit? 3- And what's the purpose of the L2 in the feedback? I have changed gradually the value of...

1 answer  ·  posted 18d ago by deleted user  ·  edited 16d ago by deleted user

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+1 −0
Why arc welding does not require high voltage to arc?

I've heared that arc welding is getting done with low voltage. As I know arcing requires high voltage. The how arc welding is done with about 50 volt. In my opinion I've thought we need kilovolts f...

2 answers  ·  posted 19d ago by mohammadsdtmnd‭  ·  last activity 16d ago by rdtsc‭

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What Sine-Wave Oscillator can be controlled with a microcontroller?

I need a Sine Wave Oscillator circuit that can allow me to control its frequency with a microcontroller. Until now all the topologies that I have found if the frequency is changed, a change in the ...

2 answers  ·  posted 24d ago by deleted user  ·  edited 18d ago by deleted user

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+2 −0
Audio OpAmp requirements

As we know audio has high dynamic range. It means 120dB dynamic range of human ear causes to hear 1 million time samaller that highest undistorted accoustic wave. Then I think for high end audio we...

1 answer  ·  posted 19d ago by mohammadsdtmnd‭  ·  last activity 18d ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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+1 −3
Need help to replace 555

Hi guys, Can anyone help me please replace the NE555 IC in this circuit by MIC1555. I need to modify also the Voltage to 18v thank you. MIC1555 datasheet NE555 datasheet Edit: The circuit a...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 20d ago by Jasen‭

555
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Is it possible to calculate the rise/fall time of an operational amplifier ?

I am planning to use the LM318 operational amplifier to generate a PWM signal and I need to know how to calculate the rise/fall time. LM318/LM218/LM118 datasheet -The slew rate is 70 V/µs maximum...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by deleted user  ·  edited 26d ago by Peter Mortensen‭

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Unterminated SPI bus needs expansion board to work properly

I'm supporting a piece of legacy hardware that routes the SPI bus through a set of headers to an expansion board. Since the expansion board doesn't actually use the SPI bus, we simply ignored the ...

1 answer  ·  posted 1mo ago by TimH‭  ·  last activity 1mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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pulse dissaper in digital scope just by looking at different signal in other channel.

I have HANTEK 6022BE, and I'm monitoring tree signal using it, FS (Frame sync clock) Pulse Transfer complete I'm using two channel of scope to monitor pair of these. The problem is when I'...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by mohammadsdtmnd‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by mohammadsdtmnd‭

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+4 −0
Possible stray current corrosion in reinforced concrete

I have a question about stray current corrosion in reinforced conrete. I am working on a project in a parking garage with PV-panels on top of the roof. The ground is directly connected to reinforce...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by Willem ‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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How to calculate the voltage of a coil?

Hi guys, I need to calculate the voltage that will center the magnetic field of a coil. The coil gonna be used in an induction heater thank you. Edit: I edited the paragraph because it was misu...

3 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 2mo ago by jonathan_the_seagull‭

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What is the difference between rise/fall time and Turn-On/off Delay Time?

Hi guys so recently i was looking for a mosfet and a gate drivers and between a lot of their specification the rise/fall time and Turn-On/off Delay Time sometime it called propagation. My question...

2 answers  ·  posted 2mo ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 2mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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+5 −1
Minimizing Common Mode Radiation - Separating Grounds

There are various different methods to keep common mode currents off the cables, one of them being discussed on the site here and with Olin's decoupling caps post on StackExchange. Slight digressio...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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+4 −0
How to perform initialization of static storage variables in embedded systems?

Whenever declaring a variable in C outside a function at file scope or when specifying it as static, it gets assigned a life time known as static storage duration. Meaning it will be accessible thr...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Lundin‭

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+0 −4
BJT common emitter amplifier equivalent circuit (π hybrid model) [closed]

Im studying the equivalent model of a BJT common emitter amplifier at high frequencies.At university we tought that the BJT at high frequencies looks something like this: However when designing ...

0 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  closed 3mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

81%
+7 −0
Rules and guidelines for drawing schematics?

We see schematics of varying quality and conventions. What is good and bad? What are the rules and conventions for drawing good schematics? What matters? What doesn't? This question is about sch...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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+4 −0
Low-pass filter after the output DAC in CD players

[Disclaimer. This is not for an academic class. I'm self-studying.] I’m reading an introductory book on DSP for audio and computer music [Steiglitz 1996, ISBN 0-8053-1684-1 p. 287]. One of the ...

3 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by Nick Alexeev‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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Is ESD overhyped?

I have seen many engineers talk about ESD protection but I had never seen its effects myself. I made many small DIY projects and I have used bare hands to touch ICs and their pins,but nothing got d...

6 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Nick Alexeev‭

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Thermal stability coefficient

The thermal stability coefficient is defined to be: $S = \frac{dI_{C}}{dI_{CBO}}$ where $I_{CBO}$ is the reverse current of the BJT when voltage isnt applied to the base of the BJT. In case of a ...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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+3 −0
Oscilloscope potentially ESD striked

I have a Rigol DS1104 oscilloscope. Last week I stood up quickly from my table and saw a spike on the scope. Right now all the channels have a DC offset when probe is connected to ground or unconne...

2 answers  ·  posted 11mo ago by ScopeMan‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Lundin‭

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+3 −0
Energy harvesting from non-invasive current sense transformer

I have a non-invasive current sense transformer (SCT-013-030) which according to its datasheet it is voltage output type. I want to harvest energy and supply a wireless sensor that consumes 5-6 uA...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by DeadMouse‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Andy aka‭

83%
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Flyback transformer with Intrinsic Safety

I have no experience designing for Intrinsic Safety (IS), but need to do that now. I have read thru IEC 60079-11, which seems to be the relevant standard for my purposes. The board I need to desi...

4 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Hawk2020‭

33%
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Effect of adding stages to a filter

Suppose we have a RC low pass filter of 1st order. If we add multiple stages every time we add a RC stage identical to our original does the slope of the curve in the bode plot db/Hz becomes wild...

2 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by a concerned citizen‭

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+5 −0
Buck-boost converter fed from split input supply

I have recently finished designing a buck-boost converter for a job that uses a split (+/-) input power supply. Load power is taken equally from both positive and negative input supplies and, the ...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by Andy aka‭  ·  edited 4mo ago by Andy aka‭

66%
+2 −0
Ceramic filter vs ceramic resonator

I have a design of a power line communication using the following IC. https://www.yamar.com/datasheet/DS-SIG60.pdf My design is the same as the example circuit in the datasheet of the chip. Th...

2 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by DeadMouse‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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+4 −0
Deriving resistor values for a taper pad attenuator

A taper pad is a resistive attenuator that maintains impedances on both ports and provides a specific amount of gain-loss ($A_{12}$): - I have derived formulas for each resistor (that I know to ...

2 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by Andy aka‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by a concerned citizen‭

57%
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pH Electrode Buffer - Offset when solution grounded

Problem pH electrode buffer offset appears when solution is grounded. Detail I have a pH electrode in some conductive solution (~1000uS). The output (measurement electrode) is buffered by an el...

2 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by rherma‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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How do PLCs normally measure 4-20mA current loops?

I'm looking for input from anyone with insight in the PLC world. How do PLCs usually measure 4-20mA current loops? I would assume it's one of these two alternatives: Through an external "shunt"...

3 answers  ·  posted 9mo ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by KalleMP‭

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+4 −0
Can confusing the plugs for earphones and microphones do any damage?

The plugs for microphones and for earphones are the same, however their functionality obviously is quite different. Now because of the same plugs it is easy to insert one of them in the wrong socke...

2 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by celtschk‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by TonyStewart‭

25%
+0 −4
Designing a circuit to verify thevenin theorem with induction motor as load [closed]

Design a suitable experiment and an AC circuit to verify Thevenin's theorem when the load is a single-phase induction motor with a capacitive start and two supplies feed the load. Ratings of load:...

0 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by dkumar94600‭  ·  closed 5mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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+3 −1
Power amplifier for remote controller

I'm designing remote controller based on NRF24L01 and STM32. I want to use SMA antenna. My question is regarding power amplifier (PA). When is it necessary to use one? The range I'm aiming for is 2...

3 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by Stefan‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by Andy aka‭

81%
+7 −0
Technique to reset pulse transformer core quickly

I am analysing a pulse transformer which is required to transfer below communication protocol pulse from primary to the secondary side. The pulse duration is 32 μs and off time available to reset t...

2 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by kadamrohan16‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by Andy aka‭

28%
+0 −3
Design high -pass filter with 2 points of the bode plot

Im designing a high-pass filter which has a gain of -8dB at half of the roll-off frequency and I am stuck ,I dont know how to continue the design. In the bode plot of that filter we have 2 points:...

3 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 5mo ago by LvW‭

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+5 −0
Is there a way to reliably measure antenna return loss outside a lab?

Assume I'm a complete beginner at RF. Is there a way to measure return loss of an antenna, in such a manner that I can reliably reproduce the measurement later on? What I'm talking about is produ...

2 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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+2 −0
Circuit which create ac sine wave from dc pulsed signal

A full wave rectifier converts a sine wave to DC pulsed signal of double frequency. Is there a circuit which does the reverse process?

2 answers  ·  posted 6mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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Results of analysis of Hartley oscillator dont make sense

I want to find the conditions of oscillation of the following Hartley oscillator.I have attached a load (ZL) to my Hartley oscillator I have written KCL for nodes A,B: For node A: $$\frac{V_{A...

3 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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Need help design a digital circuit which divides two binary numbers [closed]

Before the circuit here are the digital blocks which have been already designed and exist as part of the division block 1 bit subtractor: 2 bit subtractor(in the digital block diagram of the di...

0 answers  ·  posted 6mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  closed 6mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
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What are the key programming skills for an embedded systems engineer?

I am looking to improve my knowledge of embedded systems programming, specifically regarding microcontrollers and embedded Linux systems. A lot of the information that can be found regarding C/C++...

1 answer  ·  posted 6mo ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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Battery protection circuit

I am using two 18650 cells in series to power a RC car. Is the voltage goes below 6.2 V, the battery should be disconnected to prevent over discharging the battery. At the same time I want to imple...

2 answers  ·  posted 6mo ago by Stefan‭  ·  edited 6mo ago by Stefan‭

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Pick & place file generated by Altium does not match the actual component rotations/positions

I am generating files for manufacturing my design in Altium 22 and ordering through Eurocircuits. What I noticed during the ordering process is that the rotation of many components (and sometimes ...

1 answer  ·  posted 6mo ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by DSI‭

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Altium. Reusing schematic symbols for pin-compatible parts.

I want to create a schematic symbol and reuse it for multiple ICs which have identical pinouts. For example, OpaMPS, or the venerable SN74LS00, SN74HC00, SN74HCT00. How can I do this in an Altium...

1 answer  ·  posted 7mo ago by Nick Alexeev‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by Mu3‭

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Op Amp Hartley oscillator

Im designing a Hartley oscillator this time with a opamp providing the open-loop gain.I have tried drawing the small-signal analysis of my circuit to use KVL and KCL to find the conditions of opera...

1 answer  ·  posted 6mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 6mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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Modelling tunnel diode relaxation oscillator

I have been trying to model this oscillator I was wondering if we can somehow predict the frequency of the oscillations.For small currents inside a diode from the Shockley diode equation $$ e^{x...

1 answer  ·  posted 7mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 7mo ago by a concerned citizen‭

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DC-DC converter using Hartley oscillator and transformer [closed]

Instead of using a buck or a boost converter can we use for DC-DC conversion the circuit Im going to describe in the next lines? First we begin with a Hartley oscillator whose output is fed into ...

0 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 7mo ago by MissMulan‭

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+0 −2
Small signal analysis of BJT in saturation region

The small signal analysis of a BJT when the BJT is in amplification mode: is easy.However what happens when the BJT is in saturation mode? Can we replace the dependent current source with a r...

1 answer  ·  posted 7mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 7mo ago by MissMulan‭

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+5 −0
Siglent1104 oscilloscope channels lagging

First I noticed that clock begins before chipselect gets pulled low on SPI. After eliminating potential sources I started to suspect the scope. I connected all 4 channels to function generator at d...

3 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by Elleanor Lopez‭  ·  last activity 7mo ago by Elleanor Lopez‭

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+0 −5
Band pass filter given cutoff frequency and bandwidth

I have decided to try design a band-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 10kHz and bandwidth of 2 Hz. $$ \frac{1}{\sqrt{LC}} = 10001 \rightarrow LC = 1/100020001 sec^{2}$$ $$ \frac{R}{L} = 2...

2 answers  ·  posted 7mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 7mo ago by MissMulan‭

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+0 −0
Finding voltage gain of Hartley oscillator

I am trying to find the AC analysis of a BJT Hartley oscillator but I cannot continue. How do I find the voltage gain? When no feedback is there, we just find the output resistance and the current...

1 answer  ·  posted 7mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 7mo ago by MissMulan‭

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