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Q&A

General Q&A about the design and function of electronic systems, electric power systems and infrastructure, their theory, and tools specific to those fields. Read these guidelines before posting.

60%
+1 −0
Extract DC component of mixed signal

How can we extract a DC signal from a mixed signal?If we want to extract the AC component of a signal we can use a blocking capacitor to remove any DC offset but how do we achieve the opposite?Can ...

1 answer  ·  posted 1y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by Andy aka‭

42%
+1 −2
Critically damped oscillation issue

I have a question about this circuit:(critically damped oscillation) For a critically damped oscillation for a series RLC circuit the equation of current has this form I(t)=D1te^(-at)+D2e^(-at) ...

2 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by a concerned citizen‭

71%
+3 −0
Capacitor in 2nd stage of opamp

Inside a op-amp after the stage where the differential signal is converted to single ended , there is further amplification of the DC signal.For AC signals there is a capacitor parallel to the tran...

1 answer  ·  posted 1y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
During a Li-ion cell charge or discharge at 1C rate, are the electrode interfaces at thermodynamic equilibrium?

Is the cell voltage (at a modest charging rate) mostly determined by thermodynamics on the electrode surfaces and resistances of electrolyte and electrode particles, or there is a non-negligible ki...

1 answer  ·  posted 1y ago by leventov‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by coquelicot‭

60%
+1 −0
Unexpected phase shift in results

I find the current flowing through the capacitor $$\begin{align} I_{C_1}(t)&amp;=\dfrac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t}\left[V_1(t)-I_{C_1}(t)R_1\right] \\ {}&amp;= \dfrac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t}\left...

2 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by coquelicot‭

71%
+3 −0
Meaning of some components around voltage reference in SMPS

I have generated flyback convertor schematic by TI's Webench Power Designer. Parameters: universal AC input (85-265V AC) 5V, 2A output isolated UC3843A controller Basically I understand f...

2 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by Chupacabras‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by a concerned citizen‭

50%
+1 −1
Current and voltage in AC circuits without impedance

How can we find the equation of current and voltage of a capacitor circuit if the input voltage is AC without using the impedance formula Xc = -jωC?. We have for homework to find the equation of...

1 answer  ·  posted 1y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

60%
+1 −0
Contactor control - Higher voltage PWM

I have a battery pack that consists of 18650 battery cells(14 cells in series max.). Hence, the voltage of the battery pack will be between 35V and 60V(to be on the safe side) I am designing a BMS...

2 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by coquelicot‭

77%
+5 −0
Capacitor ESR vs. Impedance

One of the ceramic capacitors that I've found(link to the capacitor) specifies the following characteristics at 10 kHz: The difference in value is quite significant, almost 100 fold. Which grap...

3 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by TonyStewart‭

66%
+2 −0
What is the purpose of paralleling capacitors on the input/output of a power converter?

In the design of a power converter, picking the appropriate capacitors for the input and output of the converter is quite important. It is relatively easy to calculate the necessary values for a gi...

1 answer  ·  posted 1y ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 1y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
Why are antenna PCB traces square instead of rounded?

While doing some reading on RF designs I ran across this paragraph: I have never designed an RF circuit, but all the PCB trace antennas I have seen on development boards are square. For example,...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by TonyStewart‭

62%
+3 −1
Microwave oven interfering with WiFi on the 2.4GHz band

As I understand it, microwave oven magnetrons operate at 2.45GHz, which is an unlicensed band in most of the world. When 2.4GHz technologies such as WiFi (802.11), Bluetooth and Zigbee were launche...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by TonyStewart‭

60%
+1 −0
Estimating the input capacitance of an BLDC motor controller

Problem Description I am trying to design a BLDC inverter and I am in doubt of what would be the right approach for estimating the input capacitor size/type. Doing it empirically or throwing every...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by TonyStewart‭

30%
+1 −5
Is this AD8307 fake?

I am trying to test a AD8307. Here are my connections: (pins not shown are left unconnected, and also pin 8). I get a quiescent output voltage at pin 4 of about 850 mV with respect to ground, w...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  edited 2y ago by coquelicot‭

71%
+3 −0
Design considerations for a synchronous DC/DC converter

In the field of DC/DC conversion, one can build a synchronous DC/DC converter (also referred to as synchronous rectification). This practice involves replacing a diode with a MOSFET switch. As far...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
How could you model a 10M/100M Ethernet PHY architecture?

Application notes for microcontrollers or other ICs that have an internal 10M/100M ethernet PHY module differ in their requirements for the external interface components. It seems that the PHY des...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by DavidE‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+6 −2
Why is the resistance of water so high?

Measuring the resistance of water from my tap I got 500kOhm. Adding considerable amount of salt brought it down to 20kOhm: The question I have is why water is such a danger for short circuits if t...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

75%
+4 −0
Can you call an IC pin 'N.C' if it has hidden functionality?

The particular IC I ran into this issue with was DS3231 RTC. The pin configuration shows: However, the datasheet specifies To my knowledge, 'N.C' appears on ICs when it is decided to use a cer...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

IC
55%
+3 −2
Who is familiar with PocketLink semiconductor and or Tesla Model 3 electronics

I got my hands on a Tesla Model 3 aftermarket module (Display/Cluster) The IC's are labled with the brand 'PocketLink' Id like to know more about what these parts are. Chip1: PocketLink B2 003...

0 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Steven83‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Lundin‭

60%
+1 −0
Max V/Hz value for motor

I want to run a specific motor in the open loop. How to calculate the maximum ratio of V/f to run it? Am I looking at Ld or Lq value for this? Let's say these are the characteristics - haven't ch...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

83%
+8 −0
Why 3V3 instead of 3V?

Usual values used in doing electronics/power supplies are almost always round numbers: 5V 12V 28V 48V 60V I understand that in some cases IC's are built to accept the voltage directly com...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Mu3‭

66%
+2 −0
Is there a tool or trick for bending TO220 leads

Small-shop question here. Is there a convenient tool for making the bend shown below, other than a pair of pliers that happens to be just the right size, and is it worth it for qty low 100's? ...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Pete W‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Lundin‭

66%
+2 −0
Filter RF Harmonics With Additional PI Network

I have a 900MHz radio with a reference design matching network. The radio feeds to a PCB antenna (PCB antenna hasn't been verified with a VNA, and may not be a great match; this is a project to n...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by leroy105‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by leroy105‭

RF
81%
+7 −0
Why do DC/DC switching controllers seem to favour the buck-boost topology over similar ones like Cuk, SEPIC and Zeta?

I am looking at various DC/DC converter topologies for a power system I am designing. The most suitable topology for me is one that can perform both step-up and step-down functions, so I am looking...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Nick Alexeev‭

66%
+2 −0
Is there a particular type of lead-free solder that does not degrade soldering tips?

I have had my soldering iron tips degrading at ridiculous rates. Granted, they are not very expensive, but sometimes it takes less than 8 hours of soldering for them to degrade to the point where t...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Pete W‭

60%
+1 −0
Why is it is always power consumption or power delivered more in usage?

In circuit analysis why always the power has upper hand over energy? Even if we consider a simple battery circuit with a bunch of resisitors we always use the terms power delivered,absorbed,consump...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Andy aka‭

60%
+1 −0
555 timer, PAM with digital signal

I'd like to use a 555 timer as carrier wave generator at ~ 50 kHz and modulate the amplitude with an external digital signal at ~ 1 kHz. The pulse width remains constant at 10us (50% duty cycle)....

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by mrwavelets‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by coquelicot‭

57%
+2 −1
How building a follower satisfying rather extreme requirements.

What is your best suggestion for building a follower that would ideally satisfy the following spec: frequency: from 100 Hz (or lower) to 1 GHz input signal impedance: 1 Mohm input signal ampli...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  edited 2y ago by coquelicot‭

50%
+2 −2
Can there be a global EMP disaster, whether totally natural or partially natural and partly artificial?

I have no record in electrical engineering; this is a total outsider question which might be grasped absurd. Wikipedia defines EMP as: An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a tr...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by deleted user  ·  edited 2y ago by Lundin‭

71%
+3 −0
Isolated Digital Input - Overvoltage protection

I am trying to build an active-low digital isolated switch capable of withstanding 32VDC voltage without creating any damage to the system. This is the snapshot of the circuit not fulfilling the r...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
Measuring Input/Output Impedance with a VNA

On paper you can measure the input impedance of an amplifier circuit by attaching a voltage source to the input, shorting the output, and calculating the resulting impedance from the voltage and cu...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by jm567‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by coquelicot‭

60%
+1 −0
Is it possible to design an n-bit full adder using SystemVerilog?

I am trying to design a full adder in SystemVerilog. I searched on Wikipedia and I found this https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Microprocessor_Design/Add_and_Subtract_Blocks module full_...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by System‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by System‭

50%
+0 −0
My grid dip: how does this electron tube technology work?

Here is a video of the AN/PRM10, and here is a schematic (I believe the image can be zoomed): As most commercial grid dip meters produced in the past, this one possesses several functions in ad...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by coquelicot‭

57%
+2 −1
What is causing this massive discharge traveling down a power line?

What is causing this [ABC-news video via Twitter] spectacular power-line phenomenon? [image: still from ABC News]

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Pete W‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Name of this current limiting device

I'm trying to modify a LED torch, and there is a DC-DC booster (1.5 V to 3.3 V) and after that some SOT-23 device which (I assume) keeps constant 90 mA current through LED. I know I could remove th...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Chupacabras‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Chupacabras‭

71%
+3 −0
Is it always necessary to use the ground terminal of the oscilloscope probe?

Assume my oscilloscope is grounded, and the DUT is grounded as well (earth ground). I am using a standard 10 Mohm impedance 1:10 passive probe. So, the ground terminal of the probe is in fact con...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Andy aka‭

66%
+2 −0
BLDC motor - initial rotor position

Sensorless BLDC motor controller are becoming more and more popular, especially with rising of the drone industry. Being able to detect where the rotor is at 0rpm or no load seems intuitive if we ...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by KalleMP‭

71%
+3 −0
Is a BJT 3-transistor Wilson mirror faster than a simple mirror?

My question is trying to understand if there is an effect on the switching time, on both turn-on and turn-off, between the following configurations. A mirror set up to switch a current, and there ...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Pete W‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

60%
+1 −0
Why are two identical filters required for each signal, if the signals can be multiplexed into a single filter?

In the block diagram of this pulse oximeter design guide , in page 6, I see that the system utilizes two analog filters, one for filtering the PPG signal generated while the RED light/wavelength is...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Georgian‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Georgian‭

50%
+2 −2
Why does AC frequency affect my microwave's RPM?

I used to live in the United States, and my microwave ovens' turntables turned at six rotations per minute (RPM). I now live in Israel, and my microwave oven's turntable rotates at five RPM. Annoye...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by msh210‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

44%
+2 −3
Why isn't voltage of electric chair higher?

I recall vividly a story told by my grandfather who worked with high voltage power lines. A worker drove heavy machinery into 700kV line and then jumped out of the truck, instantly combusting upon ...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by manassehkatz‭

75%
+4 −0
MOV vs TVS diode

Simple thing that I realized I should know but do not -- when is an MOV preferable to a TVS diode (with some associated network to really make it work, in both cases)? Is it even something to routi...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Pete W‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by coquelicot‭

60%
+1 −0
Why is the Linear Time-Invariant System (LTI) dominant in Signal processing?

I just want to know why the Linear time-invariant(LTI) systems are a rich class in Signal Processing. Ofcourse there are different systems but still LTI is stressed a lot in academia. Is there any ...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
recommendation for chip programming connection (pogo?)

Background: I have several microcontroller based projects with custom PCB that have been in very-low-volume production, but the quantities are starting to go up. (batch sizes now ~100 and threateni...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Pete W‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
PCT2075 temperature sensor accuracy

I read datasheet for PCT2075 temperature sensor and there are some contradicting data about accuracy for me. Page 21: accuracy ±1°C (Tamb = -25°C to +100°C) accuracy ±2°C (Tamb = -55°C to +125°C...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Chupacabras‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

75%
+4 −0
What should be considered when picking a flyback diode?

Which are the parameters I should looking for when picking a flyback diode to be placed across a generic coil, such as a relay? That is: a coil with plain on/off functionality, for example a 24VDC ...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Cable loops between utility poles?

Sometimes cables between utility poles make a loop and do a U-turn. What is the purpose of such loops? The loop I'm asking about is in the lower set of wires towards the left of the picture. The...

0 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Confused about the amplitude and shape of output voltage pulse

In the circuit below, I am applying a $3.3Vpp$, $63kHz$, 50% Duty Cycle, PWM input signal at the gate of the mosfet and I am expecting to see a similar waveform with different amplitude at the LED...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Georgian‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by coquelicot‭

66%
+2 −0
CAN Bus - Internal Oscillator

Every time I needed CAN, I had just put external crystal and didn't think about it after that. It worked fine. I am wondering however whether the precisions of MCU internal oscillator is sufficien...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Lundin‭

66%
+2 −0
Driving ADC with opamp with large rails

In the image below is an opamp buffer with +/- 15v rails connected to a 3.3v ADC. The input to the opamp is limited to 0-3v. There is no protection circuitry for the ADC. Is the risk of the opam...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by z3333‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by coquelicot‭

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