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Q&A

General Q&A about the design and function of electronic systems, electric power systems and infrastructure, their theory, and tools specific to those fields. Read these guidelines before posting.

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Problem Description I am trying to design a BLDC inverter and I am in doubt of what would be the right approach for estimating the input capacitor size/type. Doing it empirically or throwing every...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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This question is related to my previous question. I want to drive a brushed DC motor using H-bridge. To power the motor two 18650 cells will be used in series. The issue is that I want to limit th...

1 answer  ·  posted 1y ago by Stefan‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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I have decided to try design a band-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 10kHz and bandwidth of 2 Hz. $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{LC}} = 10001 \rightarrow LC = 1/100020001 sec^{2}$$ $$\frac{R}{L} = 2... 2 answers · posted 1y ago by MissMulan‭ · edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭ 71% +3 −0 I was looking for guidelines of how to select appropriate cables for applications (I am interested in DC), I found IEC 183 standard which talks about high voltage cable selection for AC. Also, the ... 1 answer · posted 3mo ago by Elleanor Lopez‭ · last activity 2mo ago by Sclrx‭ 20% +0 −6 Which capacitors have smaller self resonance frequency?I would bet my money on electrolytic capacitors because they are usually much bigger than the ceramic capacitors however I don't know if they... 1 answer · posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭ · edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭ 33% +0 −2 In a previous question we found that for a critically damped oscillation:$$ I(t) = 2 t e^{-0.5 t} $$But if we integrate to find the voltage through the capacitor:$$ V_{CO} + \frac{1}{C} \cd...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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I would like to save some costs with ideal diode controllers. Basic requirement is for the diode controller to block overcurrents (short circuits) in both directions. The MAX16141A IC can do it a...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by kellogs‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by kellogs‭

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Inside a op-amp after the stage where the differential signal is converted to single ended , there is further amplification of the DC signal.For AC signals there is a capacitor parallel to the tran...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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The display counts range is one of the digital multimeter characteristics. We know that a DMM is based on an analog/digital converter, and we know too that each ADC has a certain resolution in bit...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Pacifist‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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I am planning to use the LM318 operational amplifier to generate a PWM signal and I need to know how to calculate the rise/fall time. LM318/LM218/LM118 datasheet -The slew rate is 70 V/µs maximum...

1 answer  ·  posted 11mo ago by deleted user  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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Why does the Darlington or Sziklai configurations need complementary transistors? For these configurations, when should I use complementary pairs and when could I use not complementary pairs ?

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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What is causing this [ABC-news video via Twitter] spectacular power-line phenomenon? [image: still from ABC News]

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Pete W‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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Introduction: In some books and other technical papers (also from universities) it is - surprisingly - still claimed that the bipolar transistor (BJT) would be a current-controlled element. This is...

4 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by LvW‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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If you search through the electrolytic capacitor offerings from distributors like Farnell, RS, Digikey or Mouser, you find that the maximum life-time rating is commonly quoted as 5,000 or 10,000 ho...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Andy aka‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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In theory (I mean in my engineering curriculum) I never found a diode in a mosfet symbol but in datasheets there is a diode called as body diode in both pmos and nmos.Please explain its significan...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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When soldering Micro-USB or USB-C connectors by hand, flux is applied generously. This sometimes results in flux getting inside the connector housing, making it sticky and creating high physical re...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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Signal characteristics are: 0 to 3.3V span 0 to 100Hz range( there will be noise superposed on top with unknown characteristics) Output resistance Rout=4700 ohm I want to sample that with a...

2 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by 2kind‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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Simple thing that I realized I should know but do not -- when is an MOV preferable to a TVS diode (with some associated network to really make it work, in both cases)? Is it even something to routi...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Pete W‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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Since am interested in how a delta sigma modulator works, I need to know what is the difference between differential amplifier and differentiator if there is a difference of course.

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Pacifist‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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I understand that some applications require NPN-PNP pairs with identical electrical characteristics. But I would like to understand why.

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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As the title says, I'm interested in a simple technique to measure the characteristic impedance of a cable using only the instruments available in a school lab or to a (somewhat advanced) hobbyist....

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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Certain high voltage resistors are fairly hard to get, such as the HVR37 series from Vishay. I'm looking at redesigning a board that produces 1000V via a transformer, but I want to use parts that ...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by TimH‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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The thermal stability coefficient is defined to be: $S = \frac{dI_{C}}{dI_{CBO}}$ where $I_{CBO}$ is the reverse current of the BJT when voltage isnt applied to the base of the BJT. In case of a ...

0 answers  ·  posted 11mo ago by MissMulan‭  ·  closed 2mo ago by Nick Alexeev‭

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I know that many JFETs parameters have a very large manufacturing spread, in particular, $I_{DSS}$ and $V_{GS(off)}$, as one can see (for example) in this datasheet excerpt: ... My question i...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Nick Alexeev‭

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My scenario is this: radio equipment controlling an overhead crane inside a steel mill. Specifically it is used for transporting melting pots. With the current, unfortunate installation, the antenn...

2 answers  ·  posted 1y ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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[Disclaimer. This is not for an academic class. I'm self-studying.] I’m reading an introductory book on DSP for audio and computer music [Steiglitz 1996, ISBN 0-8053-1684-1 p. 287]. One of the ...

4 answers  ·  posted 12mo ago by Nick Alexeev‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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I have a question about stray current corrosion in reinforced concrete. I am working on a project in a parking garage with PV-panels on top of the roof. The ground is directly connected to reinforc...

1 answer  ·  posted 10mo ago by Willem ‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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I have a HANTEK 6022BE oscilloscope and I'm monitoring three signals with it: FS (Frame sync clock). Pulse. Transfer complete. I'm using two channels of the scope to monitor a pair of these...

1 answer  ·  posted 10mo ago by mohammadsdtmnd‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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Once in a while in literature I see a DC offset subtraction loop. Here are a few more examples. DC servo loop removes a DC offset after an op-amp. DC servo loop removes DC current from a photo...

2 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by misk94555‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by misk94555‭

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Measuring the resistance of water from my tap I got 500kOhm. Adding considerable amount of salt brought it down to 20kOhm: The question I have is why water is such a danger for short circuits if t...

4 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  edited 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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I understand that white noise is not always Gaussian. In general, is the $V_{pp}$ and $V_{RMS}$ noise stated in operational amplifier and ADC datasheets Gaussian? And is its mean zero? Any exemptio...

1 answer  ·  posted 2mo ago by Joel‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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I have seen many engineers talk about ESD protection but I had never seen its effects myself. I made many small DIY projects and I have used bare hands to touch ICs and their pins,but nothing got d...

10 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by rdtsc‭

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The submarine built by OceanGate went missing on 18th June 2023. A lot of online criticism was directed towards the control hardware of the submarine - Logitech F710 controller. However, why i...

3 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by Elleanor Lopez‭  ·  last activity 2mo ago by Pogo‭

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I have seen multiple sources on the web discussing what they call concentric twist harnesses. It boils down to having a wiring harness built in layers, where each layer is twisted around the previo...

0 answers  ·  posted 3mo ago by Sclrx‭

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I have no experience designing for Intrinsic Safety (IS), but need to do that now. I have read thru IEC 60079-11, which seems to be the relevant standard for my purposes. The board I need to desi...

4 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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Whenever declaring a variable in C outside a function at file scope or when specifying it as static, it gets assigned a life time known as static storage duration. Meaning it will be accessible thr...

1 answer  ·  posted 11mo ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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Do common-source JFET amplifiers have an advantage over common-drain? The JFET would be in a low noise photodiode amplifier. The signal is 100us pulses with 10us raise times. Here are the schema...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by misk94555‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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What material is used in the tabs of power packages? (TO-220, D2PAK, etc.) I would assume probably a tin-plated copper alloy, but I can't find a reference. Datasheets don't seem to mention the mat...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by Jason S‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Lorenzo Donati‭

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I intend to build a high-power series LC resonant circuit for the purpose of generating strong magnetic fields at a wide range of frequencies, mostly audio range (1-5000 Hz). The inductor coil is a...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by dcsuka‭  ·  edited 3mo ago by dcsuka‭

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Noise can be coupled between signal lines through parasitic capacitance formed between these signal lines, as $i = C\frac{dv}{dt}$ where C is the capacitance between the signal lines. Another wa...

1 answer  ·  posted 3mo ago by Elleanor Lopez‭  ·  last activity 3mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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I want to sense 3 different states in the same mcu pin (GND, Hi-Z and PWR). PWR is typical +24V but I would like to have a wide margin from +17V to +40V just to be safe. The values can change but ...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by DeadMouse‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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Do micro-RF connector mating crimp connectors are ever sold separately together with a crimp tool? For example this I have looked through a lot of pages, and can only find PCB connectors + cable a...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by Elleanor Lopez‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by DSI‭

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Let's say a 100V voltage spike arrives at +12V and the TVS diode clamps it to 25V. Q2 may or may not be activated. Will this circuit ensure a V_gs lower than 25V for the mosfet Q1 ? Any catch to it...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by kellogs‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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Serial communication protocols require synchronization of the clock of the connected devices. From GR the time elapsed for the satelite is different than the time elapsed for us here on the Earth....

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by Volpina‭  ·  edited 4mo ago by Canina‭

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I have been watching this video and at 3:28 it says that a induction is inherently self-starting.Does this happen because of the energy stored and released in the windings of the statorFrom 3:41 u...

0 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by Volpina‭

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During the open circuit test of a induction motor ,not any current flows inside the rotor.But how can we achieve such a thing? Here is the ping configuration of a induction motor: The coils of ...

3 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by Volpina‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by rdtsc‭

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Lets say I power an oscillator by a non-rechargable battery. Lets imagine a generic design with LC-circuit and negative resistance created by some transistor circuit. To me it seems that at certai...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by kek‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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I am designing a control system controlled by some microcontroller K: The open loop gain is $G_{o}(s) = \frac{K}{s(s^{2}+4s+3)}$ and the closed loop gain is obviously \$G_{c}(s) = \frac{K}{s(s^{...

0 answers  ·  posted 4mo ago by Volpina‭

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I have a solar panel rated for 6V open-circuit and up to 150mA. I would like to connect this to an SPV1040 or similar buck-boost converter with MPPT functionality to be able to charge a 3.6V batter...

2 answers  ·  posted 5mo ago by Keelan‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by TonyStewart‭

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For high-speed digital communication busses, what attributes do you generally advise to add to a PCB to help with validating the communication bus as well as troubleshooting the design? In particu...

1 answer  ·  posted 4mo ago by DavidE‭  ·  last activity 4mo ago by Olin Lathrop‭