General Q&A about the design and function of electronic systems, electric power systems and infrastructure, their theory, and tools specific to those fields. Read these guidelines before posting.

A while ago I made a question about the monostable multivibrator .Lets get a picture of it: When switch is closed it enters its unstable state and it eventually returns to the stable state Howe...

Assuming we have a voltage regulator : Why do we have to ground Vin and Vout using 2 capacitors just like that?Co could be to provide a low resistance path to GND at high frequencies but what is...

I have this circuit: I think that R3 acts like a feedback path from the output to the input.However I am not sure what will happen if I change the value from 100Ohms to lets say 1kOhms. I have ...

I'm wondering what's the most correct term (if any) to use for "switching noise" of a radio transceiver? By that I mean the spikes that originate from turning the power amp on/off while switching b...

I'm designing a PCB for a project. 12 volt input power supply is provided externally, so the user will buy a power adapter, so putting a popular DC jack on the PCB is the best choice.

Intro Hi everyone, I have a question about the practical use of a PTC (positive thermal coefficient) resettable fuse. I've never used one before, but I'd like to add one to a DC motor circuit to p...

Modern CAN transceivers like MCP2561FD that support CAN FD with high baudrates come with an optional feature called SPLIT, which is to my understanding a reference voltage output pin used to give a...

Is it possible to drive a PMSM motor - here I am referring to an AC motor with permanent magnets(stator wounded, rotor with PM) - in a way that there is no externally mounted rotor position sensor(...

Hello I don't understand how this differential to single-ended voltage converter can work. What I don't understand is why we place a current mirror(a current mirror copies the current flowing thr...

I have learnt that if we have 2 parallel conductive plates and we seperate them the capacitance is increased if we put a good conductor between the plates. Now the resonant frequency of a inductor...

In monostable multivibrators we use a trigger signal applied to the base of the transistor which is usually off to enter the astable region Can we instead have a pin which is connected directly ...

Which capacitors have smaller self resonance frequency?I would bet my money on electrolytic capacitors because they are usually much bigger than the ceramic capacitors however I don't know if they...

What is a typical value for capacitance of a real inductor? Does this internal capacitance exist only under AC and not DC?

How to find the equation of voltage of the top common node of R1,L1 and C1 after the switch is moved?

How to find the equation of current of the RLC circuit after the switch is moved?

How does the differential to single ended converter work? In order for the circuit to work, Q1 and Q3 must be in the saturation region and depending on the voltage inputs, one of Q2 and Q4 will be...

How do I find the current through the inductor and the voltage of the inductor after the switch is closed?

How do I find the voltage of the capacitor and the current through the capacitor after the switch is closed?

Suppose we have this circuit How do I pick a appropriate value for the resistor R1?

What is a difference between SPI stream and memory mapped SPI? PS SPI is a peripheral.

Based on this paper on Wiki a diode can be described as a frequency mixer due to the exponential relationship between current and voltage.What I don't get from which point to which point do we meas...

When using through-hole ("THR") connectors on a multi-layer PCB, I frequently notice problems with the ground pins, when these are connected to the ground plane(s) through various "thermal relief" ...

I am designing a DC/DC converter in the control loop of which a transconductance amplifier (OTA) is used. This part of circuit looks like this: To determine the needed characteristics, I am usin...

In all descriptions of how (non-FET) transistors work I've seen, there is an inherent symmetry: There's either an n-doped layer between two p-doped, or a p-doped between two n-doped, and the descri...

In this bistable multivibrator which is $Q$ and which is $\overline{Q}$?

I was looking at the video of the Tesla Model 3 motor controller(400VDC, 500A) disassembly and noticed a resistor network as in the picture below. They are 2k resistors(SMD code 202). See the pic...

The term "Discrete" uses to describe a signal with two modes, but is there a term to describe a signal with just one mode or with three or more modes? Question update: Also, isn't a wave with just...

If we a varactor and we want to control let's say the resonant frequency of the circuit ,in my schematic we must add R1 correct?Else we create a low resistance path for current to flow not through ...

The current through the tunnel diode is: where $I_{f}$ is the current from the Shockley diode equation and $I_{tunnel}$ is the tunnel current. Is there an expression for the tunnel current or i...

If we want to divide two numbers I have problem implementing this logic.I am posting 1 images with 2 different steps to the solution. In example a) the most significant digits of the divident >...

Can we make a n-bit subtractor using full subtractors or if we want do subtract one binary from another we must use full adders and use the complement of the 2nd number to do the subtraction? I ha...

I was hiking around the Berkshires in western Massachusetts yesterday, and came across this metal panel where some power lines were crossing a ridge: The panel is a few meters wide, and appe...

I always had trouble understanding the terms "digital" and "analog"; Wikipedia and various Q&A sessions didn't contain explanations I found clear. I understood that these terms aren't well defi...

Background. I have a legacy battery system that is comprised of twenty-four 12V Li-ion battery modules (self-protected), enclosed in a shell with the charging connection provided as a common groun...

I HAVE A METER LIKE THIS BEHIND MY HOUSE MY NEIGBOR SLOWED IT DOWN SOMEHOW HE SAID HE OPENED IT UP AND DID SOMETHING TO IT NOW HE PAYS LOWER ELECTRICAL BILLS THAN ME BUT HE HAS COLLEGE DEGREE IN ...

Moderator's note: This is getting ridiculous. You keep posting these drawings that are barely legible. The scribbling is bad enough, but the uncropped images are unacceptable. The image you ori...

In noise analysis of operational amplifiers, the following is considered: Noise generated by the external components (resistors in feedback network etc.) Noise generated by the operational ampl...

Is this equation valid only when a JFET in saturation mode , correct? because in the ohmic region the JFET acts like a voltage controlled resistor and increase in VDS increases the resistance of th...

Please see the image below. I'm trying to convert my IKEA NYFORS floor lamp into a reading light, by covering the top with an Aluminium pie plate. Will this be a fire or electrical hazard? Does an...

The question being asked Ultimately, I want to know why the output voltage wasn't the expected (via calculation) 11.72V when the estimated drop-out voltage at the ~0.1A load was about 200mV. The i...

How can we extract a DC signal from a mixed signal?If we want to extract the AC component of a signal we can use a blocking capacitor to remove any DC offset but how do we achieve the opposite?Can ...

I have a question about this circuit:(critically damped oscillation) For a critically damped oscillation for a series RLC circuit the equation of current has this form I(t)=D1te^(-at)+D2e^(-at) ...

Inside a op-amp after the stage where the differential signal is converted to single ended , there is further amplification of the DC signal.For AC signals there is a capacitor parallel to the tran...

Is the cell voltage (at a modest charging rate) mostly determined by thermodynamics on the electrode surfaces and resistances of electrolyte and electrode particles, or there is a non-negligible ki...

I find the current flowing through the capacitor $$\begin{align} I_{C_1}(t)&=\dfrac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t}\left[V_1(t)-I_{C_1}(t)R_1\right] \\ {}&= \dfrac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t}\left...

I have generated flyback convertor schematic by TI's Webench Power Designer. Parameters: universal AC input (85-265V AC) 5V, 2A output isolated UC3843A controller Basically I understand f...

How can we find the equation of current and voltage of a capacitor circuit if the input voltage is AC without using the impedance formula Xc = -jωC?. We have for homework to find the equation of...

I have a battery pack that consists of 18650 battery cells(14 cells in series max.). Hence, the voltage of the battery pack will be between 35V and 60V(to be on the safe side) I am designing a BMS...

One of the ceramic capacitors that I've found(link to the capacitor) specifies the following characteristics at 10 kHz: The difference in value is quite significant, almost 100 fold. Which grap...