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Q&A

General Q&A about the design and function of electronic systems, electric power systems and infrastructure, their theory, and tools specific to those fields. Read these guidelines before posting.

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60%
+1 −0
Confusion with Wikipedia article on multivibrator circuit [closed]

A while ago I made a question about the monostable multivibrator .Lets get a picture of it: When switch is closed it enters its unstable state and it eventually returns to the stable state Howe...

0 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  closed 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

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+0 −0
Capacitors of voltage regulators [closed]

Assuming we have a voltage regulator : Why do we have to ground Vin and Vout using 2 capacitors just like that?Co could be to provide a low resistance path to GND at high frequencies but what is...

0 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  closed 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

28%
+0 −3
Find feedback of circuit

I have this circuit: I think that R3 acts like a feedback path from the output to the input.However I am not sure what will happen if I change the value from 100Ohms to lets say 1kOhms. I have ...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by LvW‭

71%
+3 −0
Most correct term for radio switching noise?

I'm wondering what's the most correct term (if any) to use for "switching noise" of a radio transceiver? By that I mean the spikes that originate from turning the power amp on/off while switching b...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

37%
+1 −3
What is the popular 12 V DC jack connector?

I'm designing a PCB for a project. 12 volt input power supply is provided externally, so the user will buy a power adapter, so putting a popular DC jack on the PCB is the best choice.

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by vigneshtnj‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by DavidCary‭

75%
+4 −0
CAN "split" pin, bus termination and common mode stabilization

Modern CAN transceivers like MCP2561FD that support CAN FD with high baudrates come with an optional feature called SPLIT, which is to my understanding a reference voltage output pin used to give a...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

50%
+1 −1
Driving PMSM machine as an AC induction machine

Is it possible to drive a PMSM motor - here I am referring to an AC motor with permanent magnets(stator wounded, rotor with PM) - in a way that there is no externally mounted rotor position sensor(...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

62%
+3 −1
Help with differential to single ended voltage converter

Hello I don't understand how this differential to single-ended voltage converter can work. What I don't understand is why we place a current mirror(a current mirror copies the current flowing thr...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

50%
+1 −1
Change of pins in monostable multivibrator

In monostable multivibrators we use a trigger signal applied to the base of the transistor which is usually off to enter the astable region Can we instead have a pin which is connected directly ...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Circuit fantasist‭

33%
+0 −2
Capacitance of inductor

What is a typical value for capacitance of a real inductor? Does this internal capacitance exist only under AC and not DC?

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
MOSFET differential to single ended converter intuition

How does the differential to single ended converter work? In order for the circuit to work, Q1 and Q3 must be in the saturation region and depending on the voltage inputs, one of Q2 and Q4 will be...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Peter Mortensen‭

50%
+1 −1
Coupling of inductors

Which will be the total series inductance?

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Andy aka‭

28%
+0 −3
Current and voltage of inductor

How do I find the current through the inductor and the voltage of the inductor after the switch is closed?

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by MissMulan‭

60%
+1 −0
Voltage and Current of capacitor

How do I find the voltage of the capacitor and the current through the capacitor after the switch is closed?

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by MissMulan‭

60%
+1 −0
SPI modes difference

What is a difference between SPI stream and memory mapped SPI? PS SPI is a peripheral.

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by FrankLEE‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by DavidCary‭

SPI
75%
+4 −0
Thermal relief for through-hole on multi-layer PCB

When using through-hole ("THR") connectors on a multi-layer PCB, I frequently notice problems with the ground pins, when these are connected to the ground plane(s) through various "thermal relief" ...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Lundin‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Nick Alexeev‭

71%
+3 −0
Type II compensation network for a non-ideal transconductance amplifier

I am designing a DC/DC converter in the control loop of which a transconductance amplifier (OTA) is used. This part of circuit looks like this: To determine the needed characteristics, I am usin...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Mu3‭  ·  edited 2y ago by Mu3‭

75%
+4 −0
What is the difference between emitter and collector of a transistor?

In all descriptions of how (non-FET) transistors work I've seen, there is an inherent symmetry: There's either an n-doped layer between two p-doped, or a p-doped between two n-doped, and the descri...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by celtschk‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
$Q$ and $\overline{Q}$ in bistable multivibrator

In this bistable multivibrator which is $Q$ and which is $\overline{Q}$?

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+4 −1
Motor Controller - What might be the purpose of these resistors?

I was looking at the video of the Tesla Model 3 motor controller(400VDC, 500A) disassembly and noticed a resistor network as in the picture below. They are 2k resistors(SMD code 202). See the pic...

4 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by DSI‭

60%
+1 −0
A signal with one mode or with three or more modes

The term "Discrete" uses to describe a signal with two modes, but is there a term to describe a signal with just one mode or with three or more modes? Question update: Also, isn't a wave with just...

3 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by deleted user  ·  edited 2y ago by deleted user

75%
+4 −0
What is this metal panel under power lines?

I was hiking around the Berkshires in western Massachusetts yesterday, and came across this metal panel where some power lines were crossing a ridge: The panel is a few meters wide, and appe...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by DSI‭

55%
+3 −2
Is there a mathematical process resembling the terms "digital"/"discrete" and "analog"/"continuous"?

I always had trouble understanding the terms "digital" and "analog"; Wikipedia and various Q&A sessions didn't contain explanations I found clear. I understood that these terms aren't well defi...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by deleted user  ·  last activity 2y ago by Nick Alexeev‭

71%
+3 −0
Battery voltage: to boost or to connect in series.

Background. I have a legacy battery system that is comprised of twenty-four 12V Li-ion battery modules (self-protected), enclosed in a shell with the charging connection provided as a common groun...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by DSI‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

16%
+0 −8
HOW TO OPTIMIZE POWER USAGE FOR HOME [closed]

I HAVE A METER LIKE THIS BEHIND MY HOUSE MY NEIGBOR SLOWED IT DOWN SOMEHOW HE SAID HE OPENED IT UP AND DID SOMETHING TO IT NOW HE PAYS LOWER ELECTRICAL BILLS THAN ME BUT HE HAS COLLEGE DEGREE IN ...

0 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by ElectroRat‭  ·  edited 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

25%
+0 −4
Electric circuit with antenna

Moderator's note: This is getting ridiculous. You keep posting these drawings that are barely legible. The scribbling is bad enough, but the uncropped images are unacceptable. The image you ori...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

66%
+2 −0
Input offset voltage/bias current noise contribution in operational amplifiers

In noise analysis of operational amplifiers, the following is considered: Noise generated by the external components (resistors in feedback network etc.) Noise generated by the operational ampl...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

50%
+0 −0
JFET equation of current

Is this equation valid only when a JFET in saturation mode , correct? because in the ohmic region the JFET acts like a voltage controlled resistor and increase in VDS increases the resistance of th...

0 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by MissMulan‭

28%
+0 −3
Is it safe to cover a floor lamp, with an Aluminum metal pie plate? [closed]

Please see the image below. I'm trying to convert my IKEA NYFORS floor lamp into a reading light, by covering the top with an Aluminium pie plate. Will this be a fire or electrical hazard? Does an...

0 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by TextKit‭  ·  closed 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

60%
+1 −0
Extract DC component of mixed signal

How can we extract a DC signal from a mixed signal?If we want to extract the AC component of a signal we can use a blocking capacitor to remove any DC offset but how do we achieve the opposite?Can ...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Andy aka‭

71%
+3 −0
During a Li-ion cell charge or discharge at 1C rate, are the electrode interfaces at thermodynamic equilibrium?

Is the cell voltage (at a modest charging rate) mostly determined by thermodynamics on the electrode surfaces and resistances of electrolyte and electrode particles, or there is a non-negligible ki...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by leventov‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by coquelicot‭

60%
+1 −0
Unexpected phase shift in results

I find the current flowing through the capacitor $$\begin{align} I_{C_1}(t)&=\dfrac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t}\left[V_1(t)-I_{C_1}(t)R_1\right] \\ {}&= \dfrac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t}\left...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by coquelicot‭

75%
+4 −0
Meaning of some components around voltage reference in SMPS

I have generated flyback convertor schematic by TI's Webench Power Designer. Parameters: universal AC input (85-265V AC) 5V, 2A output isolated UC3843A controller Basically I understand f...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Chupacabras‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by a concerned citizen‭

50%
+1 −1
Current and voltage in AC circuits without impedance

How can we find the equation of current and voltage of a capacitor circuit if the input voltage is AC without using the impedance formula Xc = -jωC?. We have for homework to find the equation of...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by MissMulan‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

77%
+5 −0
Capacitor ESR vs. Impedance

One of the ceramic capacitors that I've found(link to the capacitor) specifies the following characteristics at 10 kHz: The difference in value is quite significant, almost 100 fold. Which grap...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by TonyStewart‭

66%
+2 −0
What is the purpose of paralleling capacitors on the input/output of a power converter?

In the design of a power converter, picking the appropriate capacitors for the input and output of the converter is quite important. It is relatively easy to calculate the necessary values for a gi...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Mu3‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
Why are antenna PCB traces square instead of rounded?

While doing some reading on RF designs I ran across this paragraph: I have never designed an RF circuit, but all the PCB trace antennas I have seen on development boards are square. For example,...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by TonyStewart‭

62%
+3 −1
Microwave oven interfering with WiFi on the 2.4GHz band

As I understand it, microwave oven magnetrons operate at 2.45GHz, which is an unlicensed band in most of the world. When 2.4GHz technologies such as WiFi (802.11), Bluetooth and Zigbee were launche...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Lundin‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by TonyStewart‭

30%
+1 −5
Is this AD8307 fake?

I am trying to test a AD8307. Here are my connections: (pins not shown are left unconnected, and also pin 8). I get a quiescent output voltage at pin 4 of about 850 mV with respect to ground, w...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by coquelicot‭  ·  edited 3y ago by coquelicot‭

71%
+3 −0
How could you model a 10M/100M Ethernet PHY architecture?

Application notes for microcontrollers or other ICs that have an internal 10M/100M ethernet PHY module differ in their requirements for the external interface components. It seems that the PHY des...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by DavidE‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

77%
+5 −0
Can you call an IC pin 'N.C' if it has hidden functionality?

The particular IC I ran into this issue with was DS3231 RTC. The pin configuration shows: However, the datasheet specifies To my knowledge, 'N.C' appears on ICs when it is decided to use a cer...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

IC
55%
+3 −2
Who is familiar with PocketLink semiconductor and or Tesla Model 3 electronics

I got my hands on a Tesla Model 3 aftermarket module (Display/Cluster) The IC's are labled with the brand 'PocketLink' Id like to know more about what these parts are. Chip1: PocketLink B2 003...

0 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Steven83‭  ·  edited 3y ago by Lundin‭

66%
+2 −0
Is there a tool or trick for bending TO220 leads

Small-shop question here. Is there a convenient tool for making the bend shown below, other than a pair of pliers that happens to be just the right size, and is it worth it for qty low 100's? ...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Pete W‭  ·  edited 3y ago by Lundin‭

66%
+2 −0
Filter RF Harmonics With Additional PI Network

I have a 900MHz radio with a reference design matching network. The radio feeds to a PCB antenna (PCB antenna hasn't been verified with a VNA, and may not be a great match; this is a project to n...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by leroy105‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by leroy105‭

RF
66%
+2 −0
Is there a particular type of lead-free solder that does not degrade soldering tips?

I have had my soldering iron tips degrading at ridiculous rates. Granted, they are not very expensive, but sometimes it takes less than 8 hours of soldering for them to degrade to the point where t...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Kranulis‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Pete W‭

60%
+1 −0
Why is it is always power consumption or power delivered more in usage?

In circuit analysis why always the power has upper hand over energy? Even if we consider a simple battery circuit with a bunch of resisitors we always use the terms power delivered,absorbed,consump...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by aditya98‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Andy aka‭

60%
+1 −0
555 timer, PAM with digital signal

I'd like to use a 555 timer as carrier wave generator at ~ 50 kHz and modulate the amplitude with an external digital signal at ~ 1 kHz. The pulse width remains constant at 10us (50% duty cycle)....

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by mrwavelets‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by coquelicot‭

50%
+2 −2
Can there be a global EMP disaster, whether totally natural or partially natural and partly artificial?

I have no record in electrical engineering; this is a total outsider question which might be grasped absurd. Wikipedia defines EMP as: An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a tr...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by deleted user  ·  edited 3y ago by Lundin‭

71%
+3 −0
Isolated Digital Input - Overvoltage protection

I am trying to build an active-low digital isolated switch capable of withstanding 32VDC voltage without creating any damage to the system. This is the snapshot of the circuit not fulfilling the r...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by 2kind‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Olin Lathrop‭

71%
+3 −0
Measuring Input/Output Impedance with a VNA

On paper you can measure the input impedance of an amplifier circuit by attaching a voltage source to the input, shorting the output, and calculating the resulting impedance from the voltage and cu...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by jm567‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by coquelicot‭